Presentation on theme: "Practical Natural Language Processing Harvesting Low Hanging Fruit Jeffrey P Ferraro, PhD Scott L DuVall, PhD"— Presentation transcript:
Practical Natural Language Processing Harvesting Low Hanging Fruit Jeffrey P Ferraro, PhD (Jeffrey.Ferraro@imail.org) Scott L DuVall, PhD (Scott.DuVall@hsc.utah.edu)
Outline Application of NLP - involves interpretation of radiographs. Effects on NLP with and without radiology interpretations. Some issues around obtaining good NLP results. Difficult interpretations due to ambiguity in radiographs. What’s been easy and what’s hard. Alternatives tried to NLP that have failed. Describe some different approaches to NLP. Describe the mechanics of the method used. Working Example
Early Detection Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Significance CAP along with influenza 8 th leading cause of death in the United States. ~6 million cases annually / about 500,000 – 1.1 million hospitalizations annually. Challenges Diagnostic error rate for Pneumonia: 10% - 25% High variability in hospitalization decisions among clinicians (38% - 79% of hospitalizations could not be explained by illness severity. 10.7% treated as outpatients secondarily admitted within 7 day. Early Detection – compliance w/Joint Commission (JCAHO) quality accreditation Benefits Reduction in diagnostic errors. Reduction in unnecessary hospital admissions (20 times more costly). Rapid diagnosis and severity assessment for proper care & treatment.
CAP Real-time Screening and eProtocol Vitals Labs Physical Exam Radiological Reports Predictive Diagnostic Screening Likelihood of Pneumonia +/- CAP eProtocol 1) Pleural Effusion IP vs. OP Treatment 2) Multilobe Infiltrates Severe CAP Criteria IP – ICU Tretment 3) Cavitary Disease MRSA Risk Factor Treatment Protocol
Obtaining Good NLP Results Conclusion Radiology interpretations are necessary for good diagnostic prediction. Challenges Reduction in ambiguous language results in better predictive capabilities Standardization of Terminology Radiologists Response Need complete and accurate clinical contexts. Accurate protocol (film) selection
NLP Challenges - Ambiguous Language Possible Pneumonia Clinical History: Cough and dyspnea. Study: PA and lateral chest on … Findings: No comparison studies available. Heart is normal in size. Aorta is moderately tortuous. Lung volumes are normal. Minimal airspace disease is identified within the region of medial right middle lobe, seen on frontal and lateral views. This opacity is consistent with focal atelectasis or possibly inflammatory process. No significant edema. No pleural effusion or pneumothorax. Impression: 1. Mild airspace disease in right middle lobe, as above.
NLP Challenges - Ambiguous Language Positive Pneumonia PA and lateral chest radiograph Comparison: None Indication: Fever, cough Findings: The lungs are symmetrically inflated there is obscuration of the cardiac apex on the frontal projection with increased attenuation on the lateral view suggesting subsegmental lingular airspace disease. The diaphragm appears well visualized. Mild calcification noted at the level of the aortic arch. Mild ectasia of the descending thoracic aorta. Mild cardiomegaly. Osseous structures and soft tissues are unremarkable. Impression: 1. Subsegmental airspace disease of the lingula. Recommend a followup erect PA and lateral chest radiograph. 2. Mild cardiomegaly. 3. Mild atherosclerotic disease and ectasia of the thoracic aorta.
NLP – What’s Easy and What’s Hard Clinical Findings using NLP +/- Pneumonia – Fairly Good (ambiguity / standard terminology) Sen: 0.95, Spec: 0.81, PPV: 0.93, Acc: 0.91 +/- Pleural Effusions – Good (succinct language) Sen: 0.93, Spec: 0.97, PPV: 0.84, Acc: 0.96 +/- Cavitary Disease – Good (succinct language) Sen: 0.88, Spec: 1.0, PPV: 1.0, Acc: 1.0 Single lobe or Multi-lobe Infiltrates – Poor (must be inferred by locations: RLL, RML, RUL, LLL, LUL, Right Lung, Left Lung) Error Propagation Problem Single Lobe: Sen: 0.65, Spec: 0.78, PPV: 0.82, Acc: 0.70 Multi-lobe: Sen: 0.78, Spec: 0.65, PPV: 0.58, Acc: 0.70
NLP Alternatives that Failed Templating.. Pneumonia Quality Assurance ----------------------------------------- Parenchymal opacity c/w pneumonia in the appropriate clinical setting (yes | indeterminate): or No parenchymal opacity to suggest pneumonia. Multilobar or bilateral involvement (yes|no): Cavitation (yes|no): Pleural fluid (yes|no): No Compliance w/Templating Complex cases Proper Protocol (Film) & Clinical Context Workflow / Productivity Impact (Template Selection)
Approaches to NLP Direct Machine Learning (ML) Classification Course Grained Approach – bag of words, sentences, n-grams, chunking phrases Supervised Learning Methods (Need to know Truth) - Support Vector Machines - Gaussian Mixture Models - Bayesian Networks - K-Nearest Neighbor - Decision Trees - Random Forests Information Extraction & Rule based Fine Grained Approach – extract clinical concept categories (e.g., appliances, state change, locations, clinical findings) IE: Pattern Matching, NER, statistical inference models) Classification (Inference Rules) Information Extraction & Machine Learning Fine Grained Approach – extract clinical concept categories (e.g., appliances, state change, locations, clinical findings) IE: Pattern Matching, NER, statistical inference models) Classification (ML: Supervised Learning Methods)
Course Grained Method + / - Pneumonia Machine Learning Approach Random Forest (ensemble of decision trees) Decision Trees from various perspectives (randomly constrain available features) Majority Vote Rules Required Artifacts - Segmenter - decompose document to sentence - Sentence Level Annotation (positive evidence, negative evidence, no information gain) - Statistical Methods (10-fold cross validation, Bootstrapping) - Training and test data sets
Course Grained Method The upper lobes are well aerated and normal.0 The right lung appears clear.0 The remainder of the lungs is clear.0 The right lung and apical portion of the left upper lobe remains clear.0 Left lung is clear.0 No other areas of air space opacity are seen to suggest other regions of pneumonia.0 There is no segmental or lobar consolidation.0 There is an area of parenchymal lung opacity present in the left lower lobe and pneumonia is questioned.1 Left lower lobe pneumonia.1 However, there is an area of patchy parenchymal opacity present posteriorly in the right lower lobe.1 The appearance of this is suggestive of pneumonia.1 There is confluent opacification of most of the posterobasal segment of the left lower lobe.1 Left lower lobe consolidation, consistent with pneumonia.1 There is complete opacification of the superior segment of the right lower lobe, with air bronchograms.1 Frontal view gives this consolidated segment a round appearance.1 Segmental consolidation, consistent with pneumonia.1 There is confluent opacity in the left base which blurs the diaphragm.1 Left basilar subsegmental consolidation, consistent with pneumonia.1 Spondylitic change is noted of the thoracic spine.2 On the lateral projection this appears to be in the lingula and the lower lobe.2 Heart size and vascular pattern are within normal limits.2 Cardiac size is normal.2 No extraventilatory air is seen.2 Underlying bilateral severe bullous emphysema is also noted, with marked hyperinflation in the upper lobes.2 Central pulmonary arterial hypertension is noted.2 Expansion is within normal limits.2 Osseous mineralization is diffusely diminished.2 Thoracic kyphosis is accentuated and there is severe collapse of several mid thoracic vertebrae.2 -’ve +’ve ~IG
Course Grained Method Feature Set (X) upperrightlingulasizelaterallobepneumoniaairseen 110001100 000110000 000000011 100001000 000000000 Truth (Y) 1 0 2