Presentation on theme: ". SPNS IHIP Oral Health Webinar Series: Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body ………………. Presented by CDR Mahyar Mofidi, DMD, PhD and Jane Fox, MPH December 13, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
1.SPNS IHIP Oral Health Webinar Series: Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body ………………. Presented by CDR Mahyar Mofidi, DMD, PhD and Jane Fox, MPH December 13, 2013
2AgendaIntroduction to SPNS Integrating HIV Innovative Practices (IHIP) projectSarah Cook-Raymond, Managing Director ofImpact Marketing + CommunicationsPresentations from:Dr. Mahyar Mofidi; Branch Chief of the Division of Community HIV/AIDS Programs and Chief Dental Officer, HRSA HIV/AIDS BureauJane Fox, MPH; Project Director of SPNS Oral Health Initiative Evaluation Center for HIV and Oral Health (ECHO), Boston University School of Public HealthQ & A*
3IHIP Resources on TARGET Center Website www.careacttarget.org/ihip
4IHIP Oral Health Resources Training ManualCurriculumPocket GuideWebinar SeriesHealthy Mouth, Healthy BodyDental Case ManagementClinical Aspects of Oral Health Care for PLWHARecording and slides for all Webinars will be uploaded to TARGET Center Web site following the live event:
5Other IHIP Resources Buprenorphine Therapy Training Manual, Curriculum, Monograph, and Webinars on implementing buprenorphine in primary care settingsEngaging Hard-to-Reach PopulationsTraining Manual, Curriculum, and Webinars on engaging hard- to-reach populationsJail LinkagesTraining Manual, Curriculum, Pocket Guide, and Webinars on enhancing linkages to HIV care in jails settingsUPCOMING: Hepatitis C Treatment ExpansionIn Spring/Summer 2014, look for training materials on increasing access to and completion of Hepatitis C treatment for PLWHA on the TARGET Center Web site.
6CDR Mahyar Mofidi, DMD, PhD Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body: Oral Health Care's Vital Role in Overall Well Being for People Living with HIV/AIDSCDR Mahyar Mofidi, DMD, PhDBranch ChiefChief Dental OfficerHRSA, HIV/AIDS BureauDecember 13, 2013
712+ years ago You cannot be healthy without oral health. Oral health is essential to overall health and quality of life, and all families need access to high-quality dental care.
8Oral Health for PLWHA“While good oral health is important to the well being of all population groups, it is especially critical for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Inadequate oral health care can undermine HIV treatment and diminish quality of life, yet many individuals living with HIV are not receiving the necessary oral health care that would optimize their treatment.” -U.S. Public Health Service Surgeon General Regina M. Benjamin, MD, MBA
10Oral Disease in HIV Infection Oral infections and neoplasms occur with immunosuppression(bacterial, fungal, viral, neoplastic, lymphoma, ulcers)High prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease32-46% of PLWHA have at least one oral disease condition related to HIVSome HIV medications have side effects (xerostomia or dry mouth) which can lead to tooth decay and periodontal disease
11Dental caries were present in 66% of patients Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in a Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program-Funded Dental ClinicDental caries were present in 66% of patients54% had gingivitis and 28% had periodontal diseaseInfectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 47th Annual Meeting – November 2009 – Poster #1063
12Oral Manifestations of HIV/AIDS For those with unknown HIV status, oral manifestations may suggest HIV infection, although they are not diagnostic.Reznik DA. Perspective - Oral Manifestations of HIV Disease.International AIDS Society–USA Topics in HIV Medicine.Volume 13 Issue 5 December 2005/January 2006
13Oral Manifestations of HIV/AIDS For persons living with HIV disease not yet on therapy, the presence of certain oral manifestations may signal progression of disease.Reznik DA. Perspective - Oral Manifestations of HIV Disease.International AIDS Society–USA Topics in HIV Medicine.Volume 13 Issue 5 December 2005/January 2006
14Oral Manifestations of HIV/AIDS For persons living with HIV disease on antiretroviral therapy, the presence of certain oral manifestations may signal a failure in therapy.Hodgson TA, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. Oral lesions of HIV disease and HAART in industrialized countries. Adv Dent Res Apr 1;19(1):57-62
15Oral Disease is Rarely Self-Limiting Oral health diseases are linked to systemic diseases: diabetes, heart disease, pregnancy issuesUntreated oral disease may lead to systemic infections, weight loss, malnutritionOral diseases impact quality of life: psycho-social problems, limited career opportunities
17Role of Dental Providers Eliminate infection, pain, and discomfortRestore oral health functionsEarly detection of HIV and referral: Oral lesions can be the first overt clinical feature of HIV infection. Early detection can improve prognosis and reduce transmission/A visit to the dentist may be a health care milestone for PLWHA. The dental professional can address oral health concerns and play a role in helping engage or re-introduce patients into the health care system and coordinate their care with other primary care providers.
18What are the Benefits of Early Linkage to Oral Health Care After HIV Diagnosis? 196 HIV-positive individuals:63 newly diagnosed cases (out of oral care and within 12 months of their HIV diagnoses)Previously diagnosed controls (66 out of oral care and diagnosed with HIV between )Historical controls (67 receiving regular oral care and diagnosed with HIV between )IADR – March Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque DDS, PhD – UNC School of Dentistry.
19FindingsPersons who were newly diagnosed had significantly more teeth at baseline compared to the previously diagnosed and historical groups.Newly diagnosed individuals had less periodontal disease (attachment loss and less bleeding on probing).Previously diagnosed individuals had poorer gingival health and more broken teeth.The previously diagnosed group had the most dental decay.Service usage varied considerably:Newly diagnosed: more preventive and maintenance servicesPreviously diagnosed: more costly prosthodontic servicesIADR – March Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque DDS, PhD – UNC School of Dentistry.
20FindingsThe higher levels of dental disease in the previously diagnosed group resulted in higher treatment costs.“Early dental intervention in the newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals results in significant functional maintenance, more optimal oral health, and considerable financial savings.”IADR – March Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque DDS, PhD – UNC School of Dentistry.
22Unmet Oral Health Needs Oral health is one of the top unmet needs for PLWHA who obtain services through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program nationwide.PLWHA have more unmet oral health care needs than the general population and have more unmet oral health care needs than medical needs.PLWHA most likely to report unmet need for dental care are African American, uninsured, Medicaid recipients, and within 100% of federal poverty limits.
23Barriers to Oral Health Care Lack of dental insuranceLimited financial resourcesShortage of dentistsToo many appointments, other aspects of illness seen as being more importantFear, no positive role models, stigma, shameNegative patient-provider experiencesShrinking adult dental Medicaid benefits
24State Adult Dental Coverage in Medicaid, 2013 Number of states1814109Source: ADULT DENTAL BENEFITS IN MEDICAID, ADA
25Oral Health Care is Expensive ServiceNational average fees charged by private practitionerSample reimbursed fees by MedicaidComprehensive oral evaluation/ examination$66.29$ $44.61Limited oral evaluation$57.60$ $36.76Intraoral radiograph (first film)$23.41$ $14.91Adult cleaning$77.64$ $58.00Filling (amalgam, one surface)$110.35$ $64.56Filling (clear, one surface)$131.30$ $65.90Extraction (simple)$138.21$ $63.54Extraction (surgical)$224.11$ $109.23Endodontic (molar root canal)$868.00$ $409.90Crown (porcelain)$908.00$580.00Complete denture (upper)$1,333.57$584 - $600
27Oral Health: HRSA Strategic Priority Expand oral health and integrate it in primary care settings
28Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program and Oral Health Services Safety net
29SPNS OHISpecial Projects of National Significance Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative15 sites across countryGrantees implemented innovative models of comprehensive oral health care services to expand dental access
30Other HIV/AIDS Bureau Oral Health Investments Oral health capacity assessment during site visitsAll Grantee MeetingOral health performance measuresOral health a funding priority under Part C Capacity Development Funding OpportunitiesProgram evaluationsPublications
31Impact of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Programs on Oral Health Care FY 2011: 135,004 clients received dental servicesFY 2011: 8,480 dental providers (mostly dental students and residents) provided direct oral health care as part of CBDPP and DRPFY 2011: 8,461 health care professionals (3,451 dental, 5,010 non dental) received oral health care education through AETCs
32Impact on Our Clients“People treat you as if they have known you their whole life.”“They take care of my fear.”“They are like a big family…they gave me my smile back.”“I feel free, secure and welcomed by the staff.”“I feel comfortable…not treated as a HIV patient but a person who needs dental care.”“We’re all so fortunate to get what we need.”“It’s affordable. It’s a one stop shop.”“This is the only game in town.”“Quality of care here is 110%.”
35Evaluating the HRSA SPNS Oral Health Initiative Jane Fox, MPH Boston University
36HRSA Oral Health SPNS Initiative September 2006 HRSA funded 15 sites and one evaluation & TA centerFive year funding cycleSites were charged with increasing access to oral health care for PLWHAEval center at BUSite could design any program to meet this goal.Evaluation center: Study design includes a quantitative survey with patients – baseline, 6 and 12 months (with an optional 18 and 24), collection of all dental utilization data, and a qualitative study with in-depth interviews with 60 patients from 6 sites.
37SPNS Sites 15 sites = 7 urban and 8 rural 2 in NYC, 2 in CA and one in USVI. The remainder are scattered.
38SPNS Models - Typology Three types of host agencies ASO/CBO (5), CHC (4), and hospital/University-based programs (6)Three basic models:Fixed siteExpansion of prior dental program/servicesImplementation of new dental programMobile dental unitsSince sites were not required to follow a set format in creating their programs, we designed a typology to categorize the programs for descriptive purposes. All of the sites fall into one of these 3 types of host agencies and have adopted one of these 3 basic models. Fixed sites either expanded the kind of services they provided or expanded their service area by opening satellite clinics.Other commonalities we looked at across the sites were the use of a case manager – either dental specific or the HIV case manager and collaboration between the sites and a dental/hygiene school.
39Evaluation Study Questions Do the demonstration programs increase access to oral health care for the target population?What are the main similarities and differences in strategies and program models to increase access to oral health care across programs?Are the oral health services performed in accordance with professional practice guidelines?Do clients experience improvements in health outcomes over time?Working with the sites and HRSA we came up with 8 study questions we proposed to answer by the end of the project.
40Evaluation Study Questions Are clients’ oral health care needs met?Do clients experience improvements in oral health related quality of life after enrollment in oral health care?What strategies are most effective in furthering successful program implementation: barriers, facilitators, key lessons learned?What strategies to address the structural, policy and financing issues can be replicated in other settings?
41Evaluation Study Design Study criteriaHIV+, 18+ years of age, and no oral health care* for the past 12 months or moreQuantitative survey at baseline and follow-upDemographics, past access, insurance, HIV status, past oral health symptoms, SF-8, OH QOL, and presenting problemUtilization and ancillary dataCDT codes of EVERY procedure done, evidence of tx plan completion and recallQuantitative survey at baseline, 6, 12 and optional 18 and 24Challenges of collecting utilization data – Every procedure by code vs billing codes and formal vs informal recall systemsAncillary data – optional and good consistent data from 5 sites
42Evaluation Study Design Qualitative interviewsIn-depth interviews of 60 patients at 6 sitesOH experiences and values, OH self care knowledge and behaviors, patient education, and impact of HIV on OHDental case manager focus groupJune 2008 with 12 participantsTwo sets of qualitative interviews have been conducted with this subset of patients months apart.Sites included HIV Alliance, Montefiore, Native American Health Center, Special Health Resources in Texas, St Luke’s Hospital and the University of MiamiDCM is a new concept so we hosted a focus group to gather more information about the tasks, training and needs of this type of professional
43Patient Demographics 75% male 40.6% Black, 21.2% Latino 33.4 % high school education, 43.0% beyond high school30.6% working, 55.7% monthly income < $850Age = 43.6 (18 – 81),Yrs positive = 10.07N=246911.7% patients were diagnosed in the past yearMore than half the patients reports their last dental visit 2 or more years ago.
44Baseline Dental Access Usual place for dental care: 38.6% none; 31.0% private dentist48.2% reported needing dental care but were not able to get it since testing positiveOf those who did not get dental care, 53.8% stated affordability as the reason.Usual place for dental careNone 37.6Private dentist 30.4Community health center 17.9Dental school 5.4Other 6.7
45Baseline HIV Status97.5% had a regular place for HIV care and 95.0% had seen their HIV provider in the past 6 months85.2% had an HIV case manager and 77.9% were taking ARTs57.35 had a CD4 count over 350 and 52.8% had an undectable viral load
46Significant Changes in Outcomes at 12 Months, N=1391 Baseline12 Mos.Report unmet need for oral health care48%17%Report good/excellent health of teeth and gums38%67%Oral health symptoms: mean (SD)3.35 (2.34)1.78 (1.93)We found significant changes at 12 months related to a reduction in unmet need for oral health, improvement in the overall health of peoples’ teeth or gums and the total reduction in symptoms.
47Significant Changes in Oral Health Symptoms at 12 Months, N=1391 We also found significant reductions in oral health symptoms over 12 months, as we would hope to find. All of these were significant at p<.001
48Significant Changes in Habits at 12 Months, N=1391 Baseline12 mosP valueDaily brushing83%82%.407Daily flossing19%25%<.001Flossing at all in past 6 months53%62%Current smoker50%45%Eating candy or chewing gum with sugar61%52%Drinking soda with sugar64%31%JaneIn bivariate analysis we saw some significant changes in habits related to oral health over 12 months.No significant change in brushing habits, but flossing habits changed a lot. Still not great, but an improvement.A small but significant change in smoking.Larger changes in sugar consumption – via candy, gum or soda, and a significant change in teeth grinding.
49Patient Perspectives - Habits Improvements in oral health care practicesBetter brushing & flossing techniques & frequency“ Now I buy lots of toothbrushes and use them for a short time and replace them.”“I brush everyday instead of 3 times/week...I floss a lot more”“I brush longer”Reduce or stop smoking/tobacco use“ I still use snuff but I cut back a little and don’t leave it in my mouth as long...”“I cut down from 3 cigarettes/day from 1 pack...”Dietary changes“I still drink soda but only once in awhile...I try not to buy it”We also conducted a qualitative study with 60 patients and conducted a second in-depth interviews with 39 of the patients: at the baseline period of receiving oral health care; At the initial interview we asked about their experience with dental care as a child, prior to being diagnosed with HIV, and post diagnosis; We asked about their values attitudes and practices about dental care and taking care of their teeth; At follow up interviews approximately 12 months of being in the program we asked about:New information learnChanges in the oral health & hygiene behaviorsThe role of the staff and specifically the dental case manager, care coordinator patient navigator in the dental careWhat made the biggest differences with oral health care
50Standards of Care We established a set for the multi-site evaluation: The presence of a comprehensive examThe presence of any xraysThe presence of any cleaning or periodontal workCompletion of Phase I treatment planPatient placed on recallIn the absence of professionally accepted standards of care, we established a set for the multi-site evaluation – at the time HAB did not have their standards out and there are no standards of care from the ADA.There is just one HIV Qual measure and for the sites that are collecting this information, they ask patients if they have had at least one dental visit in the past year. The type of visit is not defined.Phase 1 Treatment: Prevention, maintenance and/or elimination of oral pathology that results from dental caries or periodontal disease.
51Service Utilization: N=2178, 14 sites Over the course of the study:Patients made over 15,000 clinic visitsThey received over 37,000 services917 (42%) completed a Phase 1 treatment planServices provided in first 12 months of care# providedPts who received any servicen /%Clinic Visits11,3152178100%Phase 1 Treatment Plans Completed*71733%Comprehensive Exams2077194489%Although there were 15 sites in the study we were only able to use the treatment data from 14 of the 15 sites.*Phase 1 Treatment Plan = Prevent and treat active disease
52Access to & Retention in Care 43% of patients came in for preventive care64% of patients were retained in careThose retained in care were:More likely to complete their treatment planMore likely to have a recall visitReported less pain, fewer symptoms at follow upFactors significantly associated with retentionOlder age, better physical health, on HIV medications, more recent dental visitReceipt of patient education – 6 times as likely to be retained in careThis 43% reported having no other problem, they just wanted a cleaning or checkupLooking at participants who were in the study 18 months or more (N=1466) we looked at the rate of retention (defined as 2 or more dental visits at least 12 months apart during an 18 month or greater observation period)In multivariate analysis controlling for clustering by site and other factors significantly associated with retention in bivariate analysis, a number of factors were significantly associated with retention in care, but one really stood out – the receipt of patient education.
53“…I very rarely go. I was not a regular client at the dentist because my parents only took me to the dentist once in my life and so I didn’t know the need for follow-up dental—you know keeping a good hygiene program until I got older.”As we found in the longitudinal quantitative study, some patients did not get oral health care because they could not afford it. We also found that many patients just did not know or value the importance of oral health care. A little less than half of the patients interviewed in the qualitative study indicated an unstable history of oral health care.
54Our study and past studies such as the HCSUS study have documented a need for dental care for HIV patients. So it should be as easy as just opening up new clinics, expanding what is already in place or designing and implementing a mobile unit. Taking the cost factor out of the way patients will flock to oral health care right?
55Engagement in Care“Outreach and retention were two things we did not anticipate to be problematic when planning for this grant. As we began to open our clinic and serve patients, we realized that this is one of the most important aspects of operating a dental clinic for this population.”Not true. Most of the sites found that although they built it, the masses of patients did come. This is at least not with out a little or in some cases a lot effort on their part.
56Getting Patients in the Door MarketingPaid & unpaid mediaCommunity materialsLiteracy levelOutreach to providersCliniciansCase managersOther CBOsAncillary servicesTransportationOther social or medical servicesSpecial eventsSPNS daysWord of mouthPeersMarketing – Almost all sites did some sort of mass marketing – PSAs, newspaper ads, announcements in CBO/clinic newslettersTargeted marketing was much more successful than wide spread effortsPatient targeted community materials – CHC storyOutreach to providers for referrals – HIV case managers overloadedAncillary services – helping patients to get there – ACG and SHRTSPNS days – contrary to what many consider as a positive method of providing OH care to HIV patients, integrating HIV patients into an existing care system. Dedicated SPNS days and expanded clinic hours were very successful in getting patients in the door.
57Keeping Patients in Care Follow-up appointmentsTimely and efficientReminder callsDedicated staffingPatient navigators/dental case managersStaff skills and relationships with patientsPatient education and empowerment“When both the dentist and the dental case manager reviewed the treatment plan with the patients, the patients gained a better understanding of why the proposed treatment was needed.”Incentives“thank you gifts”transportationPatient retention has proved challenging for a number of reasons. Here are some of the barriers we have identified.Patient population – this is not always a priority for patients especially after they realize how much work they need to haveThe dental clinic system – multiple follow-up appts and schedulingRelief of pain versus completing a treatment planPatient experience – getting there, staff interaction, dentist/hygienist interactionStrategies:Scheduling appts and reminders – two strategies to reduce no show rates that have been identified include scheduling follow-up appts quickly and providing reminder calls the day before and/or of the appt.Dedicated staffing such as a dental case manager or patient navigator who has frequent contact with patients to help patients stay in care. This person also works closely with the HIV case manager.Patient education – unified messages from dental staff and motivation interviewing techniques to build patient relationships and teach self-care techniques.Incentives – provide a thank you gift for the patient’s time and effort getting into care once the treatment plan is completed. This is not advertised but patient word of mouth is a powerful tool. And reimbursing for or providing transportation to follow-up appts.
58Dental Case Management 8 programs included dental case management5 in non-urban settings and 3 in urban settingsDCMs were eitherDental assistants who were given training on case management; orHIV case managers who were given training on oral health topics758 patients were enrolled into the study from the 8 DCM sites.They had a total of 2715 encounters with a DCM over the course of a year of treatment.Appointment reminders/reschedulingArranging or providing transportationProvision of food or nutritional informationProvision of oral health information and supportOutcomesParticipants with more DCM encounters were significantly more likely to complete their Phase 1 treatment plan at 12 months, be retained in oral care and experience improvements in overall oral health and mental health status.Participants with 5+ DCM encounters (23%) were 2.73 times more likely to complete their treatment plan compared to those with just one DCM encounter. (Lemay, et.al)IHIP webinar scheduled for January 9th.Of the 2715 encounters29% had one encounter21% had 2 encounters27% had 3 -4 encounters23% had 5+ encountersMost frequent encounters were
59“ ” Patient Perspectives DCMs She has helped me very much. First and foremost, she has helped me just with the comfort level of dealing with a place like this. I am kind of intimidated by a dentist. I mean, who is not? But she has been very comforting and she has been very good at explaining procedures. If it wasn’t for what she has done for me as far as helping, scheduling, talking, sitting with me during the dentist and everything, I may not have followed through. So it has made a really big difference. It makes me feel like there is somebody committed to my dental care, so my commitment can’t be any less than that.”
60Patient Perspectives- The role of the DCM Access to oral health care“I would not have dental care if it wasn’t for (name of dental case manager)”“He (dental case manager) got me into the program and it has been good to me”Retention in dental care“ I feel comfortable with her and it makes me want to come to appointments”Helps with patient/provider communicationProvides oral health educationThis quote from a X patient “she has helped be very much…” hanging on wall —exemplifies several of the themes from patients about the role of Dental case managers—Overall we found roles that DCM’s play include (these are listed on the posters):Helping with accessing dental servicesBetter retained in careReducing fear about dental proceduresExplaining and demonstrating how to take care of mouth and teeth & sharing informationHelping patients communicate and coordinate care with dental and medical providers; between dental providers
61Policy ImplicationsSuccessful strategies for outreach, engagement and retention in dental careIncreasing access is feasibleStandards of carePatient and community educationWorkforce innovationsFuture financing and sustainabilityThe HRSA standards of care are important, even if somewhat controversial in the field. This is the first time extensive data have been collected to look at things like treatment plan completion rates and recall visits.Increasing access is feasible – especially if cost barriers are removed. Even though they had been out of care for over a year, and for the majority over 2 years, people came into care through referrals from medical providers, case managers and through publicity and outreach. And many of these were people who were not experiencing active pain – just wanted a cleaning.If care is provided and funded, then patient and community education are critical to ensure that people enter care and stay in care. Patient education had a six-fold effect on retention in care, highlighting the importance of this activities. In all the discussion over the training and competencies of mid-level dental clinicians, we need to remember this essential public health function that should be part of any job description.Finally, finding secure financing is essential to sustainability and we now have information about the range of costs and range of care to fit every budget – information that we help will be useful in discussions around reauthorization.
62Evaluation Center for HIV and Oral Health Contact InformationJane Fox, MPHEvaluation Center for HIV and Oral HealthBoston University
63Upcoming Oral Health Webinars Dental Case ManagementJanuary 9, 2014 at 1 PM ESTPresenters:Dr. Howell Strauss and Mr. Nelson Diaz, AIDS Care Group of Chester, PADr. Carolyn Brown and Ms. Lucy Wright, Native American Health Center of San Francisco, CAClinical Aspects of Oral Health Care for PLWHAJanuary 22, 2014 at 3 PM ESTDr. David Reznik, HIVDent and Grady Health System of Atlanta, GAMs. Helene Bednarsh, RDH, MPH, HIVDent and Boston Public Health Commission of Boston, MA
64IHIP Web site: www.careacttarget.org/ihip Q & ATo be informed about Webinars and other upcoming IHIP resources, sign up for the IHIP listserv by ingIHIP Web site:Connect with UsSarah Cook-Raymond, Managing Director |Impact Marketing + CommunicationsFacebook: ImpactMarCom |www.impactmc.net |*