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Radiology Dr / Anwar Abd-Elgayed Ebeed Assistant Professor Telephone no / 0534024566

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Presentation on theme: "Radiology Dr / Anwar Abd-Elgayed Ebeed Assistant Professor Telephone no / 0534024566"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Radiology

3 Dr / Anwar Abd-Elgayed Ebeed Assistant Professor Telephone no /

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5 RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING 1 st Lecture

6 1.Plain X ray 2.Myelography 3. CT scan 4.MRI scan 5. Ultrasound 6.Isotope Study e.g. Bone scan 7. Angiogram

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8 CT Ultrasonography Plain x ray

9 CT MRI Myelography

10 Ultrasonography Bone scan

11 11 Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview X-Rays – High-energy electromagnetic waves – Travel in straight lines – Shorter wave length than visible light – Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities – Capable of exposing a photographic plate (x-ray film) Much the same way as a camera exposes film

12 12 X-Rays (continued) – Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body – Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease Radiology – Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of x-rays Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview (continued)

13 13 X-Rays (continued) – Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body – Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease Radiology – Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of x-rays Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview (continued)

14 14 PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING

15 15 Pronounced – (an-jee-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) – (CAR-dee-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun) Defined – A specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart Angiocardiography (Cardiac Catheterization)

16 Angiocardiography

17 17 Angiography Pronounced – (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – A series of x-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance

18 Coronary angiography MRI angiography

19 19 Cerebral Angiography Pronounced – (seh-REE-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee) – (SER-eh-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray possible

20 Cerebral Angiography

21 21 Renal Angiography Pronounced – (REE-nal an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium

22 Renal angiography

23 23 Arteriography Pronounced – (ar-tee-ree-OG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the blood stream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter

24 Hepatic arteriography

25 25 Arthrography Pronounced – (ar-THROG-rah-fee) Defined – The process of taking x-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible

26 Arthrography

27 27 Barium Enema (BE) Pronounced – (BAH-ree-um EN-eh-mah) Defined – Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum – Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract

28 Barium Enema (BE)

29 29 Barium Swallow (Upper GI Series) Pronounced – (BAH-ree-um SWALL-oh) Defined – Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract

30 30 Bronchography Pronounced – (brong-KOG-rah-fee) Defined – Bronchial examination via x-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance

31 Bronchography Main air way ronchgraphy

32 32 Cholangiography (Intravenous) Pronounced – (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) – (in-trah-VEE-nus) Defined – Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium

33 Cholangiography

34 34 Cholangiography (Percutaneous Transhepatic) Pronounced – (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) – (per-kyoo-TAY-nee-us trans-heh-PAT-ik) Defined – Examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium Also known as PTC or PTHC

35 Percutaneou cholangiography

36 36 Pronounced – (koh-lan-jee-oh-pan-kree-ah-TOG-rah-fee) – (en-doh-SKOP-ic RET-roh-grayd) Defined – Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope Cholangiopancreatography (Endoscopic Retrograde)

37 Endoscopic Retrograde

38 38 Cholecystography (Oral) Pronounced – (koh-lee-sis-TOG-rah-fee) Defined – Visualization of the gallbladder through x- ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye

39 Cholecystography

40 40 (Pronounced) – (sin-eh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera Cineradiography

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42 42 Pronounced – (kom-PEW-ted AK-see-al toh-MOG-rah- fee) Defined – A painless, noninvasive diagnostic x-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)

43 43 Computed Axial Tomography (continued)

44 Computed Axial Tomography

45 Abdominal CT

46 46 Voiding Cystourethrography Pronounced – (VOYD-ing sis-toh-yoo-ree-THROG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material

47 Cystourethrography

48 48 Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) Pronounced – (DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process

49 Angiography

50 Renal angiogram Renal CT angiogram

51 51 Echocardiography Pronounced – (ek-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders

52 Echocardiography

53 53 Fluoroscopy Pronounced – (floor-or-OSS-koh-pee) Defined – Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope

54 Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures - similar to an x-ray "movie." A continuous x-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and is transmitted to a TV-like monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. Fluoroscopy is used in many types of examinations and procedures, such as barium x-rays, cardiac catheterization, and placement of intravenous (IV) catheters (hollow tubes inserted into veins or arteries). In barium x-rays, fluoroscopy allows the physician to see the movement of the intestines as the barium moves through them. In cardiac catheterization, fluoroscopy enables the physician to see the flow of blood through the coronary arteries in order to evaluate the presence of arterial blockages. For intravenous catheter insertion, fluoroscopy assists the physician in guiding the catheter into a specific location inside the body.

55 Fluoroscopy

56 56 Pronounced – (his-ter-oh-sal-ping-OG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray assessment of the uterus and the fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures Hysterosalpingography

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58 58 Lymphangiography Pronounced – (lim-fan-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot

59 Lymphangiography

60 60 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Pronounced – (mag-NET-ik REZ-oh-nans IM-ij-ing) Defined – A noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation

61 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

62 62 Mammography Pronounced – (mam-OG-rah-fee) Defined – Process of taking x-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt

63 Mammography

64 64 Myelography Pronounced – (my-eh-LOG-rah-fee) Defined – Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through x-ray examination

65 Myelography

66 66 Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET) Pronunciation – (POZ-ih-tron ee-MISH-un toh-MOG-rah-fee) Defined – Computerized radiographic images of various body structures produced when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected

67 Positron Emission Tomography Scan

68 68 Pronounced – (pye-eh-LOG-rah-fee) – (in-trah-VEE-nus) Defined – Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram Pyelography (Intravenous) (IVP)

69 Pyelography

70 70 Radiation Therapy Pronounced – (ray-dee-AY-shun THAIR-ah-pee) Defined – The delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following: Destruction of tumor cells Reduction of tumor size Decrease in pain Relief of obstruction To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells

71 Radiation Therapy

72 72 Radiation Therapy (continued) – Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless if they are cancerous – Goal of therapy is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimum, normal tissue damage – May be delivered by teletherapy (external) – May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)

73 73 Radioactive Iodine Uptake Pronounced – (ray-dee-oh-AK-tiv EYE-oh-dine UP-tayk) Defined – An examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given

74 Radioactive Iodine Uptake

75 75 Pronounced – (SCAN-ing) Defined – Scanning of specific parts of the body with a gamma camera after an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material, which is absorbed by the area to be studied The image of the area being studied is displayed by recording the concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area Scanning

76 76 Scanning (continued) Bone Scan – Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones

77 Bone Scan

78 78 Scanning (continued) Brain Scan – Nuclear scanning of cranial contents 2 hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds

79 Brain Scan

80 80 Scanning (continued) Liver Scan – Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver

81 Liver metastasis CT scan Liver enlargement

82 82 Scanning (continued) Lung Scan – Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or inhaled radioactive material

83 CT lung scan

84 84 Scanning (continued) Spleen Scan – Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems

85 Liver spleen scan

86 86 Small Bowel Follow-through Pronounced – (Small Bowel Follow-Through) Defined – Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe the progression of the barium through the small intestines

87 87 Tomography Pronounced – (toh-MOG-rah-fee) Defined – X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder

88 Tomography (liver tumour)

89 89 Pronounced – (ull-trah-son-OG-rah-fee) Defined – Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)

90 90 Ultrasonography (continued) Abdominal Ultrasound – Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters

91 Ultrasonography

92 92 Ultrasonography (continued) Pelvic Ultrasound – Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis – Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes

93 Pelvic Ultrasound

94 94 Renal Ultrasound – Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys Thyroid Echogram (Ultrasound) – Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules Ultrasonography (continued)

95 95 Venography Pronounced – (vee-NOG-rah-fee) Defined – Technique used to prepare an x-ray image of veins, which have been injected with a contrast medium that is radiopaque – Also called phlebography

96 Venography

97 97 Xeroradiography Pronounced – (zee-roh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined – A diagnostic x-ray technique used to produce an electrical image rather than a chemical image Uses less radiation and exposure time than ordinary x-rays

98 Xeroradiography

99 99 X-Rays Pronounced – (ECKS-rays) Defined – The use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy

100 100 X-Rays (continued) Chest X-Ray – Visualization of the interior of the chest – Provides diagnostic information about the following: Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices

101 101 Chest X-Ray Views – Posteroanterior (PA) X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front) – Lateral X-rays pass through the person’s side – Oblique X-rays are taken from different angles – Decubitus X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid X-Rays (continued)

102 Chest X-Ray

103 Thank youQuestions

104


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