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RADIOLOGY Radiology Radiology Radiology. RADIOLOGY Radiology Radiology Radiology.

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Presentation on theme: "RADIOLOGY Radiology Radiology Radiology. RADIOLOGY Radiology Radiology Radiology."— Presentation transcript:


2 RADIOLOGY Radiology Radiology Radiology

3 Dr / Anwar Abd-Elgayed Ebeed
Assistant Professor Telephone no / .com


1st Lecture

6 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Plain X ray Myelography CT scan MRI scan Ultrasound
Isotope Study e.g. Bone scan Angiogram


8 Plain x ray CT Ultrasonography

9 CT MRI Myelography

10 Ultrasonography Bone scan

11 Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview
X-Rays High-energy electromagnetic waves Travel in straight lines Shorter wave length than visible light Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities Capable of exposing a photographic plate (x-ray film) Much the same way as a camera exposes film

12 Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview (continued)
X-Rays (continued) Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease Radiology Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of x-rays

13 Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging Overview (continued)
X-Rays (continued) Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease Radiology Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of x-rays


15 Angiocardiography (Cardiac Catheterization)
Pronounced (an-jee-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) (CAR-dee-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun) Defined A specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart

16 Angiocardiography

17 Angiography Pronounced (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
A series of x-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance

18 Coronary angiography MRI angiography

19 Cerebral Angiography Pronounced (seh-REE-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
(SER-eh-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray possible

20 Cerebral Angiography

21 Renal Angiography Pronounced (REE-nal an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium

22 Renal angiography

23 Arteriography Pronounced (ar-tee-ree-OG-rah-fee) Defined
X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the blood stream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter

24 Hepatic arteriography

25 Arthrography Pronounced (ar-THROG-rah-fee) Defined
The process of taking x-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible

26 Arthrography

27 Barium Enema (BE) Pronounced (BAH-ree-um EN-eh-mah) Defined
Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract

28 Barium Enema (BE)

29 Barium Swallow (Upper GI Series)
Pronounced (BAH-ree-um SWALL-oh) Defined Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract

30 Bronchography Pronounced (brong-KOG-rah-fee) Defined
Bronchial examination via x-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance

31 Bronchography Main air way ronchgraphy

32 Cholangiography (Intravenous)
Pronounced (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) (in-trah-VEE-nus) Defined Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium

33 Cholangiography

34 Cholangiography (Percutaneous Transhepatic)
Pronounced (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) (per-kyoo-TAY-nee-us trans-heh-PAT-ik) Defined Examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium Also known as PTC or PTHC

35 Percutaneou cholangiography

36 Cholangiopancreatography (Endoscopic Retrograde)
Pronounced (koh-lan-jee-oh-pan-kree-ah-TOG-rah-fee) (en-doh-SKOP-ic RET-roh-grayd) Defined Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope

37 Endoscopic Retrograde

38 Cholecystography (Oral)
Pronounced (koh-lee-sis-TOG-rah-fee) Defined Visualization of the gallbladder through x-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye

39 Cholecystography

40 Cineradiography (Pronounced) (sin-eh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera

41 Cineradiography

42 Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)
Pronounced (kom-PEW-ted AK-see-al toh-MOG-rah-fee) Defined A painless, noninvasive diagnostic x-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body

43 Computed Axial Tomography (continued)

44 Computed Axial Tomography

45 Abdominal CT

46 Voiding Cystourethrography
Pronounced (VOYD-ing sis-toh-yoo-ree-THROG-rah-fee) Defined X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material

47 Cystourethrography

48 Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
Pronounced (DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process

49 Angiography

50 Renal angiogram Renal CT angiogram

51 Echocardiography Pronounced (ek-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders

52 Echocardiography

53 Fluoroscopy Pronounced (floor-or-OSS-koh-pee) Defined
Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope

54 Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures - similar to an x-ray "movie." A continuous x-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and is transmitted to a TV-like monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. Fluoroscopy is used in many types of examinations and procedures, such as barium x-rays, cardiac catheterization, and placement of intravenous (IV) catheters (hollow tubes inserted into veins or arteries). In barium x-rays, fluoroscopy allows the physician to see the movement of the intestines as the barium moves through them. In cardiac catheterization, fluoroscopy enables the physician to see the flow of blood through the coronary arteries in order to evaluate the presence of arterial blockages. For intravenous catheter insertion, fluoroscopy assists the physician in guiding the catheter into a specific location inside the body.

55 Fluoroscopy

56 Hysterosalpingography
Pronounced (his-ter-oh-sal-ping-OG-rah-fee) Defined X-ray assessment of the uterus and the fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures

57 Hysterosalpingography

58 Lymphangiography Pronounced (lim-fan-jee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
X-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot

59 Lymphangiography

60 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Pronounced (mag-NET-ik REZ-oh-nans IM-ij-ing) Defined A noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation

61 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

62 Mammography Pronounced (mam-OG-rah-fee) Defined
Process of taking x-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt

63 Mammography

64 Myelography Pronounced (my-eh-LOG-rah-fee) Defined
Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through x-ray examination

65 Myelography

66 Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET)
Pronunciation (POZ-ih-tron ee-MISH-un toh-MOG-rah-fee) Defined Computerized radiographic images of various body structures produced when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected

67 Positron Emission Tomography Scan

68 Pyelography (Intravenous) (IVP)
Pronounced (pye-eh-LOG-rah-fee) (in-trah-VEE-nus) Defined Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram

69 Pyelography

70 Radiation Therapy Pronounced (ray-dee-AY-shun THAIR-ah-pee) Defined
The delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following: Destruction of tumor cells Reduction of tumor size Decrease in pain Relief of obstruction To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells

71 Radiation Therapy

72 Radiation Therapy (continued)
Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless if they are cancerous Goal of therapy is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimum, normal tissue damage May be delivered by teletherapy (external) May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)

73 Radioactive Iodine Uptake
Pronounced (ray-dee-oh-AK-tiv EYE-oh-dine UP-tayk) Defined An examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given

74 Radioactive Iodine Uptake

75 Scanning Pronounced (SCAN-ing) Defined
Scanning of specific parts of the body with a gamma camera after an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material, which is absorbed by the area to be studied The image of the area being studied is displayed by recording the concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area

76 Scanning (continued) Bone Scan
Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones

77 Bone Scan

78 Scanning (continued) Brain Scan
Nuclear scanning of cranial contents 2 hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds

79 Brain Scan

80 Scanning (continued) Liver Scan
Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver

81 Liver metastasis CT scan Liver enlargement

82 Scanning (continued) Lung Scan
Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or inhaled radioactive material

83 CT lung scan

84 Scanning (continued) Spleen Scan
Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems

85 Liver spleen scan

86 Small Bowel Follow-through
Pronounced (Small Bowel Follow-Through) Defined Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe the progression of the barium through the small intestines

87 Tomography Pronounced (toh-MOG-rah-fee) Defined
X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder

88 Tomography (liver tumour)

89 Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)
Pronounced (ull-trah-son-OG-rah-fee) Defined Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form

90 Ultrasonography (continued)
Abdominal Ultrasound Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters

91 Ultrasonography

92 Ultrasonography (continued)
Pelvic Ultrasound Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes

93 Pelvic Ultrasound

94 Ultrasonography (continued)
Renal Ultrasound Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys Thyroid Echogram (Ultrasound) Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules

95 Venography Pronounced (vee-NOG-rah-fee) Defined
Technique used to prepare an x-ray image of veins, which have been injected with a contrast medium that is radiopaque Also called phlebography

96 Venography

97 Xeroradiography Pronounced (zee-roh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee) Defined
A diagnostic x-ray technique used to produce an electrical image rather than a chemical image Uses less radiation and exposure time than ordinary x-rays

98 Xeroradiography

99 X-Rays Pronounced (ECKS-rays) Defined
The use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy

100 X-Rays (continued) Chest X-Ray
Visualization of the interior of the chest Provides diagnostic information about the following: Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices

101 X-Rays (continued) Chest X-Ray Views Posteroanterior (PA) Lateral
X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front) Lateral X-rays pass through the person’s side Oblique X-rays are taken from different angles Decubitus X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid

102 Chest X-Ray

103 Thank you Questions

104 Thank you

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