5Causes of pneumothorax 1- SpontaneousCommenst type.Young adultsThin and tall who do not have lung disease.Males are affected 4 times than females.Usually at the lung apex .May be due to rupture of congenital pleural bleb.Note :-Pleural bleb :- A small gas space inside the visceral pleura.
6Causes of pneumothorax 2- InjuryA- Through a chest wall e.g stab wound.B- Road traffic accident .3- Lung diseasesUncommon complication of some lung diseases such as asthma , emphysema and pneumonia.
7Clinical pictures 1- Chest pain 2- Shortness of breath 3- Fainting 4- Rarely cardiac arrest in severe cases ("tension pneumothorax").
13Pneumothorax No vascular markings on right No shift of mediastinum to leftAtelectatic right lungSmall fluid level near costophrenic angle: (Hydro pneumothorax )
14Radiographic appearance 2- Tension pneumothoraxTranslucent area deprived from lung markingsThin , white , sharp line represents visceral pleura+/- lung collapseShift of the mediastinal structure away from the diseased side
15Pneumothorax No vascular markings on right Shift of mediastinum to leftAtelectatic right lung