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4/13/2017 Prof.M.Hamam.

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1 4/13/2017 Prof.M.Hamam

2 Radiographic Examination (Oral diagnosis,Oral Medicine & Treatment Planning: Bricker,Langlais,Miller,p ) Selection criteria Commonly used radiology Film evauation & interpretation. Radiographic appearance of dental diseases http//

3 Radiographic Examination
Selection criteria, commonly used radiographic. Film evaluation & interpretion. Radiographic appearance dental diseases

4 Selection Criteria Concept
Initial Examination Recall Examination Post-treatment Follow up

5 Initial Examination The type of radiographic examination must be specific for the patient and current oral condition Panoramic radiograph, Bite-wing x-ray films before the patient is examined Primary teeth ,mixed denition,permenent teeth unerpted,impacted teeth Per apical radiographs Which show the entire tooth surrounding bone

6 Recall Examination The recall or follow up examination of a patient has no ‘’specified’’rules for radiographic survey . Posterior bitewing examination at 6-month intervals or until no carious lesions are evident

7 Post treatment follow –up
Root canal therapy Radiographic follow up ;interval of 3,6,12 months Oral surgical procedure , such as ; Odontogenic cysts,tumors,should be followed annually for 5 years to detect and prevent recurrence

8 Commonly used radiographs
1-Interaoral radiographs Periapical,bitewing,occlusal 2- Extraoral radiographs

9 Intera-oral radiograph
Bitewing radiograph , Detection interproximal caries that would not be detected clinically Estimation the horizontal level of bone between the posterior teeth (periodontal status ) Complete-radiographic survey ( with per apical radiograph ) Full-mouth x-rays(FMX), Full –mouth series (FMS) Complete-mouth x-ray (CMX).

10 Periapical film of anterior teeth
Bitewing film for posterior teeth

11 Intera-oral radiograph
Occlusal radiograph Which is a versatile study, examine large areas of the jaws It allows examination of structures or lesions in a third dimension by radio graphing the object at right angles to the initial radiograph. Remember , a typical per apical of bitewing radiograph is only a two-dimensional representation of three-dimention structures

12 Occlusal view demonstrating a calcified deposit in Wharthon’s duct

13 Mixed dention

14 Extra-oral radiographs All extraoral radiographs are used to examine larger areas of the head and neck Panoramic , Lateral jaw T.M.J (transcranial,transpharyngeal,trasorbital ) Cephalometric Waters’ view( occipital ) Submentovertex (basilar)

15 Panoramic film

16 Lateral oblique

17 Posteroanterior radiograph (PA)

18 Cephalometric radiograph

19 Modified schuller for T.M.J.Radiograph

20 Spiral projection of the left T.M.J

21 Axial skull radiograph (T.M.J)

22 Film evaluation If the intraoral or extraoral radiograph is to be a useful diagnostic aid , it must be free of errors of film positioning, exposure and processing. The ultimate is to interpret the radiographic features or findings from the film.& avoid any problem that compromise the overall film quality e.g. Artifacts , motion, distorted anatomic structures, overlapped interproximal contacts, underexposed (light) or overexposed (dark)films

23 Opencontect radiograph
Overlaped contact radiograph

24 Any problems that compromise the overall film quality ,
Prevent the dentist from obtaining all the information and limit the usefulness of the radiographic examination One cannot interpret what one cannot see

25 Errors make it necessary to retake the film
Thus exposing the patient to unnecessary x-radiation & increasing the risk of harm to the patient . A missed diagnosis because of improper film quality is as serious as failure to take a radiograph when one is indicated

26 1- the interest area represented in the film
Overall film quality to ensure that the radiogrph is diagnostically acceptable 1- the interest area represented in the film 2- no additional film (s) needs to see the area complatelly 3-no errors 4- overall film density is acceptable 5-the structure of interest free of distortion 6- the film of sufficient quality that interpretition can lead to a diagnosis

27 Radiographic interpretation
It is that part of the discipline that identifies or detects radiographic features or changes on the radiograph Through interpretation, the findings support the eventual diagnosis of disease. The dentist must always interpret the findings in conjunction with historical and clinical information (anatomy, physiology ,pathology, immunologic & systemic conditions ) Diagnostic radiology is a true ‘’bridging science ‘’ a cognitive discipline that demands experience and training in many related areas of medicine and dentistry

28 Radiographic interpretation
A-Viewing Method Radiologic interpretation must be systematic and sequential manner for each film entirety(horizontal bone ,periapical pathosis,interproximal caries,trabecular bone pattern ,maxillary sinus ) .

29 Radiographic interpretation
B-Viewing Conditions Radiographs should also be interpreted or Viewed under optimal viewing conditions ( in room with subdued lighting & magnifying glass ,) Films of inferior quality, whatever the reason, should be retaken

30 Radiographic interpretation
C- Interpretive Methods Dental disease processes,odontogenic, cyst, and tumors, and systemic conditions have radiolographic features or characteristics(multilocular radiolucencies) that allow the dentist to group them according to their more common clinicoradiographic presentation A process called ‘’pattern matching ‘’ Differential diagnosis (Additional characteristics, about each of the lesions to narrow the choice to one of two more probable diagnoses ) ( lab. Investigation, biopsy ,histopathology or clinical pathologic test ) treatment based on final diagnosis

31 Radiographic appearance of dental caries
Bitewing radiographs Per apical radiographs Radiographic appearance of caries depends on the surface Caries on occlusal surface penetrates a pit or fissure and spreads in a triangular shape with the base to the dentin. Once the dentin is involved ,the lesions continuous to the pulp with another triangle area . Carious involvement of the proximal enamel can appear triangular ,bandlike,linear(active lesions ) or cupped out(arrested caries ) .

32 Root caries seen radiographically on the proximal surfaces
when enamel is involved (cupped out ) Facial or lingual caries(cervical area) appears within the crown of the tooth as light radiolucency per apical involvement as a sequelae to caries is seen in acute apical pathosis & condensing osteitis .

33 Radiographic appearance of periodontal disease
Early changes Both per apical & bitewing radiographs can be used to detect the subtle, early bone changes of periodontal disease. Anterior segments It is difficult to its long embrasure form and closeness of adjacent roots . Early radiographic changes in the anterior segments of the maxilla and mandible including blunting of the interdental septa,specifically the cortical crest , horizontal bone loss up to 3-4 mm from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the presence or absence of local factors such as calculus deposits, poor contacts, and overhanging Restorations.

34 In posterior regions Interdental septa are flat , early sign is the loss of crestal cortication .discontinuous with the lamina dura .

35 The information available from radiographs to assist in the determination of the patient’s overall periodontal 1- status of the lamina dura 2-crown-to-root ratio 3-contact integrity 4-presence or absence crystal cortication 5-remining bone height 6-changes of periodontal ligament space 7-possible furcation involvement 8-pattern or extent of the disease 9- local irritant such as calculus or overhangs 10-disease progression or remission by serial radiography

36 Advanced changes Sever horizontal bone loss, vertical bony defects, Periodontitis can also be detected by intra-oral radiographs.

37 Differential diagnosis
Lesion description Parameters of a lesion’s size,shape,outline,radiodensity,(radiolucent, or radiopaque) and secondary, features such as resorption or displacement that affect adjacent structures of teeth and bone . Margin(well-defined or ill-defined,sclerotic;corticated or no corticated ) Does the lesion look expansible ? Is that solitary or one of multiple lesions ? Does it affect more than one bone in the body ? Is it producing bone or other products within itself or at its periphery ? Does it have a characteristic appearance such as :- multilocular or per coronal ? Where is the lesion located ?

38 Pattern Recognition Pattern recognition or pattern matching is a unique method of teaching radiologic interpretation . The pathologist groups diseases into several large categories such as development ,neoplastic,inflammatory or reactive, and systemic Radiologist now groups lesions by their most usual radiographic presentation (not all lesions always have these presentating patterns Because many factors such as inflammation or the patient’s systemic Condition may modified the appearance of any lesion.

39 Common Radiographic Presentation of Maxillofacial Lesions
Solitary radiolucencies Periapial granuloma ,per apical cyst Multiple radiolucencies Cemntoma ,multiple myeloma Multilocular radiolucencies Ameloblastoma,odontogenic keratocyst Solitary radiopacities Exostosis,condensing osteitis Multiple radiopacities Supernumery teeth, cementoma Pericronal radiolucencies Dentigerous cyst ,eruption cyst Mixed radiolucencent – radiopaque lesions Cementoma osteomylitis Generalized radiopacities systemic disorders Paget’s diseases of none , fibrous dysplasia Soft tissue calcifications Silolith, calcified lymph node

40 Periapical granuloma Nasopalatine cyst

41 Complex odontoma Ameloblastoma

42 Solitary bone cyst

43 Cementossifying fibroma

44 cementoblastoma

45 Fibrous dysplasia

46 keratocyst

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