Two periapical films showing well defined radiopacity at apex of Mn 1st molar, exibits root tip absorption and loss of lamina dura and some widening of the PDL space. Both lesions are present on teeth with crown or extensive caries Differential –Condensing osteitis--look for large carious lesion or crown (this is correct for previous 2 radiographs) –Idiopathic osteosclerosis (bone scar) (because the tooth is non- vital you can rule this out--Also note that the PDL space is rarely obliterated with bone scars –Osteoma (a smaller lesion)--look for multiple impacted supernumerary teeth and odontomas--can tip you off to Garnders –Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia-- if pt. was female and african and pulp vital! (so this can be ruled out) –Cementoblastoma--these can be differentiated by a thin radiolucent border and they generally show fusion to the root from which it arose Treatment –Root canal therapy Condensing Osteitis
Patient reports severe pain to heat extremes Spontaneous pain Response to Electric pulp test is erractic Onset has been about a week
Occlusal view and periapical radiograph of tooth #14 showing enlarged pulp and occlusal mass protruding through the dentin Differential –Irreversible pulpitis –Periapical abcess-remember if you see a cyst at the apex it means that a cyst was there before the abcess--abcess is acute--it dosen’t have enough time to wear through the bone and make a well-defined radiolucency Treatment –Endo –extraction Irreversable Pulpitis
Sensitive to heat extremes Pain goes away when thermal stimulus removed No spontaneous pain Responds at lower currents to electric pulp testing
Reversible Pulpitis Differential- –Reversible pulpitis –Recurrent caries Treatment –Remove agent that is causing the inflammation
Periapical Abscess Tooth #3 has widened PDL on DB root, parulis (a result of purulent drainage) has collected near the apex of the DB root tip. No distinct radiolucency noted and pt reports acute onset Differential –Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) generalized widening of PDL –Sarcoma or carcinoma Treatment –Root canal therapy –If the teeth are VITAL and you see any radioLUCENCY in the jaw you must biopsy!!
Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia Differential –Complex odontoma –Idiopathic osteosclerosis Treatment –None, you don’t worry about a biopsy b/c african and anterior MN
Pt has history of infected MN molar and/or root fracture & airway obstruction
Ludwig’s Angina Swelling of the submandibular, submental and sublingual spaces with resulting airway obstruction Differential –Thyroid gland enlargement, Thyroglossal duct cyst, dermoid cyst Treatment –Aggressive use of antibiotics, drainage, in some pts may need to perform tracheostomy
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis »Grave concern is raised when the infection encroaches on the eyelid or affects vision, because the ophthalmic (angular) veins lack valves and spread of infection to the brain is possible Treatment drainage, antibiotics, high mortality rate
Periapical cyst or Granuloma Loss of lamina dura around effected roots Differential –Impossible to tell difference b/w cyst or granuloma from radiograph alone--need biopsy (cysts are the result of cell rests of Malassez being in the area of inflammation) –Periapical scar-radiolucency will persist if scar is formed –If on the side of root (not at apex) then lateral radicular cyst Treatment –Root canal therapy with follow up to make sure the lesion has healed
Biopsy techniques Get normal tissue with abnormal tissue If surface lesion--don’t need to go too deep If swelling or mass--the deeper the better Don’t biopsy the middle of an ulcer Lasso technique Mark with sutures Punch biopsy--5mm minimum Include picture and differential with as much clinical info as possible--this is very important Contact the pt right away with results!!