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Introduction to Abdominal Radiology Meghan Woodland, DVM.

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1 Introduction to Abdominal Radiology Meghan Woodland, DVM

2 Indications Vomiting/Diarrhea Abdominal Pain Hematuria Abdominal Mass/Distension Tenesmus (Pain on Defecation)

3 Technical Factors Abdomen has low inherent contrast – Lower kVp – Higher mAs Collimation – High amount of scatter – Use grid (if patient is >10-11cm thick) Take exposure on expiration

4 Positioning VD and R lateral views Include from diaphragm to pelvic inlet Fore limbs pulled cranially Hind limbs pulled caudally Additional views as necessary

5 Radiographic techniques: the dog By Joe P. Morgan, John Doval, Valerie Samii

6 Radiographic techniques: the dog By Joe P. Morgan, John Doval, Valerie Samii


8 Improper positioning. Could miss a diaphragmatic hernia.

9 Unprepared Abdomen

10 “Butt Shot” – Urethral Calculi

11 Interpretation of Abdominal Radiographs Liver Spleen Kidneys GIT (Stomach, SI, Cecum, LI) Bladder Prostate Extra-abdominal structures

12 Structures Not Normally Seen Gall bladder Pancreas Adrenals Ovaries Uterus Ureters Lymph Nodes Mesentery Vasculature

13 Liver Lateral view: – Caudo-ventral margin angular – Should not extend beyond the costal arch – Normal gastric axis parallel to ribs or perpendicular to spine VD view: – Liver margins not well seen – Long axis of stomach perpendicular to spine


15 Over-inflation of chest gives false appearance of enlarged liver


17 Spleen Size is subjective Lateral view: – Tail of spleen visible, but position varies – Not usually seen on this view in cats VD view: – Head of the spleen is visualized Caudo-lateral to stomach fundus Cranio-lateral to left kidney – Cats : often seen lying along the left body wall

18 Dog – Lateral View

19 Dog – VD View

20 Cat – Lateral View

21 Cat – VD View

22 Kidneys Right located cranial to left May be difficult to see in young or emaciated animals Size (only evaluated on VD view) – Dogs: 2 ½ to 3 ½ times the length of L2 – Cats: 2 to 3 times the length of L2

23 Dog – Lateral View

24 Dog – VD View

25 Cat – Lateral View

26 Cat – VD View

27 Gastrointestinal Tract Stomach – Caudal to liver – Gastric Axis – Less than 3 ICS wide on lateral view – VD: Dog = U-shaped Cat = J-shaped


29 Dog – VD View “U-Shaped” Stomach

30 Cat – VD View “J-Shaped” Stomach

31 Gastrointestinal Tract Small Intestine – Size: Width less than 3 times the last rib – Duodenum Fixed along the right side Extends caudally from the pyloric region of the stomach – Jejunum/Ileum Position Varies Mid-ventral abdomen


33 Gastrointestinal Tract Cecum – Comma shaped – Mid, right abdomen – Not often seen in cats Large Intestine – Ascending, transverse and descending colon – Size: Width less than 5 times the last rib

34 Cecum – VD View

35 Cecum – Lateral View

36 Megacolon in a Dog Descending colon Transverse Colon Ascending Colon

37 Contrast Study Transverse Colon Ascending Colon Descending colon

38 Bladder Size varies Dog: – Oval to ellipsoid – Caudal abdomen or pelvic Cat: – Ellipsoid – Always intra-abdominal (elongated bladder neck)

39 Dog – Lateral View Bladder more pelvic

40 Cat – Lateral View Long Bladder Neck

41 Prostate Intact males ++ Caudal to bladder Symmetrical with smooth margins Size: – Lateral: Less than 70% of sacro-pubic distance – VD: Less than 50% of pelvic inlet width


43 Extra-Abdominal Structures Soft Tissues Bone (Spine, Pelvis, Hind limbs) Diaphragm Thorax (if visible)


45 Decreased Abdominal Detail Inability to distinguish organs Causes: – Young Animals * – Emaciated Animals – Peritoneal Fluid – Inflammation (Peritonitis, Pancreatitis) – Carcinomatosis  Normal finding

46 Emaciated Cat

47 Abdominal Fluid

48 How Many Babies? Fun Slides

49 Where is the foreign body?

50 What organs are mineralized?

51 ????

52 1

53 2


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