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Bolt-on skills for low-carbon construction? British training in European context Presentation: New Skills for Green Jobs Workshop Programme, Bicton EaRTH.

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Presentation on theme: "Bolt-on skills for low-carbon construction? British training in European context Presentation: New Skills for Green Jobs Workshop Programme, Bicton EaRTH."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bolt-on skills for low-carbon construction? British training in European context Presentation: New Skills for Green Jobs Workshop Programme, Bicton EaRTH Centre, Bicton College Professor Linda Clarke & Colin Gleeson Westminster Business School, School of Architecture & the Built Environment, University of Westminster

2 Aims Identify key professional and operative skill/competence requirements to low energy construction, focussing on housebuilding and trades Set in context of vocational education and training (VET) system, entry into construction, employment/working conditions Indicate strategic direction for construction VET for "green buildings" across occupational and professional barriers to make paradigm shift - from ‘bolt-on skills’ to the development of occupational/industrial capacity.. Address gender and diversity disparities

3 European Emissions Reductions Targets: “20/20/20” Reduce energy use, increase renewable energy, reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20% by 2020 Construction sector = 40% EU CO 2 end-use emissions:→ Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) 2010, covering all buildings over 50m 2 Renewable Energy Sources Directive (RES) 2009 →’near zero emissions’ for new and retrofitted buildings through energy efficient envelopes & on-site renewables supported by: New qualifications Quality assurance schemes and ‘Green Deals’ (on retrofitting energy saving products and ‘Feed-in’ tariffs)

4 EU dwellings built before 1945 generally “Hard to Heat” add concrete Tower Blocks Add “Fuel Poverty” HUGE WORK POTENTIAL Source: GEODE 2005,

5 Energy flows: Heat losses & gains: the importance of interfaces 20 o C -1 o C

6 A New “thermal literacy” CO2 emissions result from: Regulated Emissions: Space heating, hot water, lighting Non regulated: Appliances – cooking, TV, computers, electrical goods –Target “Near Zero Emissions” –The building envelope – low carbon construction techniques: super-insulation, thermal bridge-free construction, air-tightness –New materials (aerogel insulation, hempcrete, triple glazing, etc) –New technologies: LEDs, heat pumps, MVHR, compact service units, etc) –Off-setting emissions – RENEWABLES – PV, ST

7 Heat losses and interfaces: e.g. between groundworker and bricklayer FABRIC: walls, floor, roof, windows, doors. Requirement for low u values (rate of heat loss) THERMAL BRIDGES: lintels, junctions between floors & walls, walls & roof, glass & frame, etc, (incomplete insulation) AIR PERMEABILITY: unintended air leakage (draught) through gaps in envelope – wall and window, builder’s openings, use of tapes and mastics

8 Where do we go from here? –building envelope key to emissions reductions ~ not strap-on PV or ST –knowledge, skills and competences needed not widely available & generally not in curriculum –construction industry factional with silo- thinking

9 Skill LevelSkills/Trade ProfilesComment AppliancesL/MDIYWhite goods energy advisors Draught exclusion Q15 to Q10MJoiner/specialist contractorSpecialist contractors Cavity wall insulationMSpecialist contractor, BuilderCavity wall Insulation contractor Extract fansHElectrician, Builder Loft insulationL/MInsulation contractor (Australian experience) May be DIY, otherwise builder or specialist contractor PhotovoltaicsHElectrician, RooferSpecialist contractor under Microgeneration scheme Boiler & controlsHPlumber, Electrician, BuilderFuture maintenance works Cylinder & controlsHPlumber, Electrician Solar ThermalHPlumber, Electrician, Roofer, Builder Specialist contractor under Microgeneration scheme Openings (windows & doors)MBuilder, Joiner, specialist contractor Builder or window contractor External Wall Insulation MSpecialist contractor,, builder, plumber, Electrician Specialist EWI contractor, all trades attending. Draught proof - Q10 to Q5MAll tradesRequires specialist tapes and mastics, knowledge & commitment from all trades + Tool Box talks Air-tight construction Q5 to ≤Q3 HAll tradesRequires specialist tapes and mastics, knowledge & commitment from all trade + Tool Box talks + in-dept planning & supervision Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR) HSpecialist contractor, builder, electrician Specialist design, installation, commissioning and maintenance. Requires access to hidden ductwork and MVHR unit. Internal Wall InsulationMBuilder, Plasterer, DecoratorBuilder or specialist contractor, all trades attending Floor insulationMBuilderBuilder, all trades attending Making goodMBuilder, plaster, decoratorAll building works require “making good” and redecorating Subjective Demand-based Skills Analysis

10 plumber quantity surveyor bricklayer joiner construction manager site manager roofer architect CarpenterJoiner Bricklayer Concrete worker Plumber Site Manager Roofer Building engineer Architect SKILLS QUALIFICATIONS carpenter

11 Trade versus Occupation (e.g. Beruf) –Performance of employer- defined tasks in work process –skills acquired through traditional apprenticeship, largely on job with little theoretical underpinning –competences confined to narrow trade skills to produce given output –geared to single workplace –Scope defined by employer/trade associations with little involvement of trade unions and educationalists –formally recognised, adaptable and developing social category –regulated VET and qualifications, theoretical & practical knowledge necessary to undertake defined and broad range activities –holistic and multi-dimensional competences linked to developing individual capacity and labour process change –Systematised combination of knowledge, skills and competence –Scope determined by social partner negotiation –Bound up with wage relations system

12 Netherlands e.g. bricklaying occupation England e.g. bricklaying trade VET (education-based) = dominant entry/qualification route, geared to standards attainment Occupation embedded in sector and linked to education →mapping occupations onto sectoral structure Qualification and entry routes are not overlapping Little mapping of labour categories into sectoral divisions Qualifications embedded in comprehensive VET system, validated by social partners Broad competencies (knowledge, skills + personal development), uniting intellectual and manual and allowing for permeability Training employer/labour market based, weak, geared to performance Two formal qualification routes: - Apprenticeships (employer & PT college) - FT college route; increasingly dominant Narrow, bounded skills - intellectual function separated from manual, Social partner-based, high labour market currency and recognition of occupational qualifications through collective bargaining → close relation occupation and social status → OLM Limited project management and permeability Informal learning on the job; OSAT Weak currency of qualifications and recognition through collective agreements→ weak occupational status

13 The structure of learning in the UK

14 The structure of learning in Germany

15 Construction Skills trainee numbers survey first-year intake 2001-2010 2001/22002/32003/42004/52005/62006/72007/82009/10 Construction managers, professionals & technical staff 7,0377,4706,4306,5205,5064,8643,8994,057 Wood trades and interior fit-out15,60414,69014,09713,71914,75214,12613,74310,758 Bricklayers8,4028,3998,5858,4739,9239,0838,9497,138 Painters and decorators4,5254,0413,1233,2863,7183,3623,4532,428 Plasterers and dry liners1,4441,6261,2971,6781,7352,0372,4071,940 Roofers409356714958818553394254 Floorers370379324300335377442324 Specialist building operatives nec*1471904754427996054511,110 Scaffolders5306363996208829251,055502 Plant operatives3062,0974,5734,9874,7602,8994,7463,847 Plant mechanics/fitters205214219197173331511409 Civil engineering operatives nec*122745274794891,1872,062 Total4711048744491534607147061404104216634711 Source of data: ConstructionSkills.

16 How many apprentices? How old are they? AustraliaAustriaEnglandFranceGermanyIreland Switz’ land 39331117401143 Apprentices per 1000 employed 2009 Apprentices in France, Ireland and the three dual-system countries are normally below 25. In Australia, a half and in England a quarter of all apprentices are over 25

17 UK Construction Workforce 1996-2009 (thousands)

18 Women and ethnic minorities in building occupations post 2000 Women : 10.2% construction, 0.3% manual trades Painters and decorators 3% Floor and wall tilers 1.4% Carpenters and joiners1% Women make up 3% of all construction trainees Women make up 7% of all construction trainees in further education colleges Male workers dominate the industry in manual occupations where they constitute 99.7% of the private-sector workforce Ethnic minorities in construction = 2.8%, in economically active population = 7% in London = 30% working population, 12.4% in building trades; unemployment = 11.7%, white population 5.2%

19 Subcontracting & operative input on English housing site Subcontracted TradesSubcontract as % of contract value % of operative input Groundworks22.323.9 Plumbing & drainage External works Brickwork33 Brickwork8 Specialist piling3.51.2 Roofing1.41.87 Plumbing/ heating5.24 Electrical2.63.2 Plastering/ screeding3.47.2 Carpentry1.79.6 Decorating1.13.4 Specialists (scaffoding, landscaping, etc.)0.1-1.15.4 subcontract values53

20 Subcontract firms on D1 Subcontractor Tradeas % contract value Total operative days % operative input 1Extern. insul./ render4.69529.3 Painting0.93043 2Electrics3.69038.8 3Plastering5495.4 4Ventilation/sanitary5034.9 5Heating4444.4 6Screeding/ floor layer3.94274.2 7Window/door manu.4204.1 8Tiling43253.2 9Roofing, external cladding 2.8 1.5 3143.1 10Locksmith/ironworks62382.3 Subcontract values27.3 11-13Other Specialists7887.7 13 Specialists6,16760.4 Sub contractor input6,68265.4 Operative input10,205 100

21 Productivity comparisons of English, German and Danish housing projects Operative hours per sq. m. Index of labour input (DK=100) Operative hours per dwelling Sq.m. completed per day UK119.3149.6%1,35528.4 D113.9107.8%1,17020.8 DK112.9100%1,11420.8

22 Implications –Importance of : –interfaces and building envelope in heat loss →breaking down trade divisions –roof and wall insulation, boiler and controls, and photovoltaics in energy saving interventions → integrated teamworking –Difficulties: – bridging interfaces and teamworking with trade-based system and ‘bolt-on’ skills training → developing occupational capacity –Bridging professional-operative divide and creating permeability with employer-based system →ensuring trade union/educationalist involvement –Way forward: new approach to VET based on developing individual capacity not imparting skills for job-in-hand

23 The Future –Need for new approach to construction to achieve “near zero emissions” buildings – BUT –Need comprehensive, regulated and inclusive VET system based on social partnership –Need for diverse, qualified workforce, particularly more women - supported by child care provision etc.

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