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Sunni & Sh’ia Four “rightly-guided” Caliphs over Islam Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali – challenged by Aisha, Mu’awiya –Civil War, Ali Assassinated –Ali’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Sunni & Sh’ia Four “rightly-guided” Caliphs over Islam Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali – challenged by Aisha, Mu’awiya –Civil War, Ali Assassinated –Ali’s."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Sunni & Sh’ia Four “rightly-guided” Caliphs over Islam Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali – challenged by Aisha, Mu’awiya –Civil War, Ali Assassinated –Ali’s son Hussein martyred in battle –Other son Hassan poisoned

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5 Sunni & Shi’a: Theological Differences Sunni No formal clergy Rely on written tradition, consensus of independent scholars, clerics

6 Sunni & Shi’a: Theological Differences Shi’a 12 “Imams” descended from founder Ali 12 th Imam, Muhammad Al-Mahdi  Claim to Caliphate  Disappeared at 4 yrs old  Sunni claimed he was dead  Shi’a said he was “hidden” & would return

7 Sunni & Shi’a: Theological Differences  Established council of clerics after last “true” Imam descended from Ali died  Focus on current, charismatic leaders who speak with Pope-like infallibility, e.g. Ayatollah Khomeini  Add “Ali is the beloved of Allah” to Shahadah  Different call to prayer, prayer style, put clay from Karbalah on forehead (where Ali killed).

8 Sufi  Suf = wool  Focus on God’s love, mystical experiences, esp. seeing God’s face  Asceticism, poverty  Whirling dervish subsect

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13 Islam Israel & Palestine 61 B.C. Romans occupy Judah 70 1st Revolt 132 2nd Bar-Kokbah Revolt 135 Romans drive most Jews from Rome, name the area Palaestina (“Philistine Syria”) 638 Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem

14 Islam Israel & Palestine 19th Century - Zionism - Jews move to Israel 200,000 Arabs in Palestine No national identity Settlers had mixed views from utopian to exclusionary

15 Islam Israel & Palestine 1917 Balfour Declaration Britain promises a national homeland to the Jews in Palestine which will not infringe of the rights of the current population in the 1918 WWI ends Britain and France take control of Middle Eastern colonies of the Ottoman Empire

16 Islam Israel & Palestine 1920 Mandate of Palestine “Palestine” split at the Jordan river West of the Jordan (23%) = “Palestine” a Jewish homeland East of the Jordan (77%) = “Transjordan” an Arab homeland (later simply “Jordan”)

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18 Islam Israel & Palestine Periodic Violence over increasing Jewish immigration in Palestine 1939 Under pressure from Arabs, British Govt. Issues White Paper of 1939, which limits Jewish immigration Jews to immigrate anyway bc of Holocaust Pressure on Intl Community for Jewish homeland promised in Balfour

19 Islam Israel & Palestine 1947 UN plans another partition of “Palestine” (23% of original territory) into an Arab and Jewish State Arabs reject the offer, both sides arm for war 1948 Israel Declares Independence Civil War breaks out British Troops Evacuate

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21 Islam Israel & Palestine 1948 After 6 Weeks of War, the Jews win, truce declared Expulsions on both sides k Arab refugees created Arab countries refuse to take in refugees 1964 Palestinian Liberation Organization created 1967 Surrounding nations attack Israel Israel wins and takes Gaza and West Bank

22 Islam Israel & Palestine 1983 Islamic Jihad forms and begins terrorist attacks 1987 Hamas (Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine) launches first Intafada - Islamic terror 1993 Oslo Accords - Yassir Arafat offered 97% of Six Day War Territory - West Bank, Gaza, East Jerauslam - walks away and starts 2nd Intafada (terrorist attacks) Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Arafat’s Al Aqsa Martyr’s Brigade begin suicide bombings

23 Islam Israel & Palestine 2003 Israelis begin building security fence 2004 Hamas wins election over Arafat’s Fatah party after Arafat’s death, renounces suicide bombings, arms smuggling 2005 Israel forces Gaza settlers to leave and gives the land to the Palestinians


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