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America’s History Sixth Edition CHAPTER 7 Politics and Society in the New Republic, 1787-1820 Copyright © 2009 by Bedford/St. Martin’s and Matthew Ellington,

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Presentation on theme: "America’s History Sixth Edition CHAPTER 7 Politics and Society in the New Republic, 1787-1820 Copyright © 2009 by Bedford/St. Martin’s and Matthew Ellington,"— Presentation transcript:

1 America’s History Sixth Edition CHAPTER 7 Politics and Society in the New Republic, Copyright © 2009 by Bedford/St. Martin’s and Matthew Ellington, Ruben S. Ayala High School Henretta Brody Dumenil

2 1.The Political Crisis of the 1790s –The Federalists Implement the Constitution –Hamilton's Financial Program –Jefferson’s Agrarian Vision –The French Revolution Divides Americans –The Rise of Political Parties –Constitutional Crisis, The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution –The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance –Migration and the Changing Farm Economy –The Jeffersonian Presidency –Jefferson and the West 3.The War of 1812 and the Transformation of American Politics –Conflict in the Atlantic and the West –The War of 1812 –The Federalist Legacy

3 The Federalists Implement the Constitution Washington established important precedents but took control of the federal bureaucracy Congress passed a Judiciary Act and Bill of Rights

4 Hamilton’s Financial Plan Assumption: paying off the states’ war debts Funding at Par: paying off 100% of debt National Bank: federal currency, led to debate over strict vs. loose interpretation of Constitution Funded by excise taxes and revenue tariffs Capitol moved to upper south (Washington DC)

5 Jefferson’s Agrarian Vision Factions by 1794: –Federalists (Hamilton) vs. Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) Jeffersonian ideal= nation of farmers

6 The French Revolution Divides Americans Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 kept US out of European War and helped Northern economy Whiskey Rebellion crushed by the federal government--showing its newfound power Jay’s Treaty- postponed war with England Pickney’s Treaty- US free use of Mississippi

7 The Rise of Political Parties Federalists: pro-British, loose construction, northern merchants, creditors, urban artisans Republicans: pro-French, strict construction, southern planters, western farmers, others XYZ affair (1797) led to a quasi-war with France and weakened affection for France in the US

8 Constitutional Crisis, Federalist Congress passed Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts to silence criticism Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued states could nullify unconstitutional federal laws Jefferson won a bitter, close campaign for President Crises were averted when Hamilton supported Jefferson over Burr and Federalists left peacefully

9 The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance Threats and bribes led tribes to cede land to US Treaty of Greenville established US domination over Indians in lands east of the Mississippi River Most Indians resisted federal assimilation attempts

10 Migration & the Changing Farm Economy Many moved west, but wealthy often controlled much of the land Eli Whitney’s cotton gin greatly increased cotton and slavery Technology helped northern farmers

11 The Jeffersonian Presidency Virginia Dynasty: Jefferson, Madison, Monroe Barbary War showed emerging US military might Marbury vs. Madison (1803): Judicial Review Jefferson shrank size of government and military but kept many Federalist officials and the Bank of US

12 Jefferson and the West Louisiana Purchase, 1803, doubled size of US In 1804 Lewis and Clark explored new US lands Burr was involved in plots to break apart US

13 Conflict in the Atlantic and the West Impressment and the USS Chesapeake incident almost led US to war with Britain in 1807 Embargo Act of 1807 cut all trade, and hurt shippers Causes of War of 1812 –British impressment of American sailors –War hawks’ desire to gain Canada and Florida –British aid to Native Americans and forts in northwest

14 The War of 1812 Poorly fought by US and opposed in New England Hartford Convention called for Federalist reforms Treaty of Ghent retained prewar borders

15 The Federalist Legacy Federalist Party faded and Republicans split into two factions: Nationalist and Jeffersonian/Democrat Marshall Court strengthened judicial authority, the supremacy of national laws, and property rights Adams-Onis Treaty gave US Florida in 1819 Monroe Doctrine warned Europe against colonization


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