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OE vocabulary OE - relatively few borrowings; most words were native (i.e. Germanic); Many words - almost identical: hand, winter, under; Some words -

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Presentation on theme: "OE vocabulary OE - relatively few borrowings; most words were native (i.e. Germanic); Many words - almost identical: hand, winter, under; Some words -"— Presentation transcript:

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2 OE vocabulary OE - relatively few borrowings; most words were native (i.e. Germanic); Many words - almost identical: hand, winter, under; Some words - similar form, but different meaning: brēad (piece), drēam (joy), sellan (give), winnan (fight); Some words - limited context (fixed expressions/collocatins/idioms): bridegroom, werewolf, Yuletide; Many OE words did not survive: blīcan (shine), here (army), racu (explanation);

3 OE - borrowings Latin: before OE (Romans  Germanic tribes): trade: Lat vīnum  OE wīn military: Lat vallum  OE weall OE (Anglo-Saxons): learned loanwords: Lat scrīnium  OE scrīn, Lat schola  OE scōl Celtic: place names: Avon, Dover, London Lat  Celtic  OE: -ceaster, -coln

4 OE - borrowings Old Norse Most ON words in OE were unwritten until ME Many loanwords = cognates: substitutionOE sweoster/ON systir bifurcationOE scyrte/ON skirta other examples; call take give they – them – their vind + auga (window)

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6 ME lexicon - borrowings Latin (often via Fr) religion: pulpit, scripture, law: conviction, commit, legitimate education: library, index, scribe science: medicine, equal, recipe Greek via Lat: chaos, history via Fr: chronicle, dragon,

7 ME lexicon - borrowings French (esp – 1400) administration: government, country, royal law: crime, court, judge religion: preach, saint military: castle, captain, soldier food: beef, fry, fruit education: literature, letter … Eng nobiles used many Fr words while speaking Eng

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9 ModE - borrowings Latin (science, geography, medicine): peninsula, library, delirium… Greek: many words via Lat & Fr: rhythm, barbarous, machine… French (social life, art): ModE: cigarette, police, camouflage, cliché… ME vs. ModE: chief vs. chef

10 ModE - borrowings Spanish & Portuguese (trade, nature): alligator, chocolate, embargo, potato, tornado… Italian (art, food, social life): piano, opera, balloon, casino, fresco,influenza, broccoli… Dutch (trade, navy): deck, iceberg, smuggle, booze, Br colonies: jungle (Hindu), bazaar (Persian), tea (Chinese), rattan (Malay), boomerang (Austr), banana (W Afr)


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