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Terms  John Marshall  Judicial Review  Louisiana Purchase  Meriwether Lewis  William Clark  Lewis & Clark Expedition  Sacagawea  Impressment 

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Presentation on theme: "Terms  John Marshall  Judicial Review  Louisiana Purchase  Meriwether Lewis  William Clark  Lewis & Clark Expedition  Sacagawea  Impressment "— Presentation transcript:

1 Terms  John Marshall  Judicial Review  Louisiana Purchase  Meriwether Lewis  William Clark  Lewis & Clark Expedition  Sacagawea  Impressment  Embargo  Embargo Act of 1807  Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. His court established Judicial Review. He was a federalist and served for 34 yrs.  The Supreme Court’s power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional…originated in Marbury v. Madison  1803 the purchase of French land between the Mississippi R. and the Rocky Mts that doubled the size of the U.S.  Former army captain selected by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase, he led the expedition known as the Lewis and Clark expedition.  American soldier, invited to be co-captain to explore the Louisiana Purchase  An expedition that began in1804 to explore the Louisiana Purchase.  Shoshone woman who, along with her French husband, accompanied and aided Lewis and Clark.  The practice of forcing people[le to serve in the army or navy: led to increased tensions between Great Britain and the U.S. in the early 1800’s.  The banning of trade with a country.  A law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries.

2 Terms  Non-intercourse  Tecumseh  Battle of Tippecanoe  War Hawks  Andrew Jackson  Treaty of Fort Jackson  Battle of New Orleans  Hartford Convention  Treaty of Ghent  Act of 1809 that replaced the Embargo Act and restored trade with all nations except Britain, France, and their colonies.  Shawnee Chief who attempted to form an Indian confederation to resist white settlement in the Northwest Territory.  1811 U.S. victory over an Indian confederation that wanted to stop white settlement in the NW Territory; increased tensions between Great Britain and U.S.  Members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain after the Battle of Tippecanoe  Nicknamed Old Hickory, he led the Tennessee militia to victory over Creek Indians (Horseshoe Bend). He is also the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.  Treaty signed after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; The Creek nation were forced to give up 23 million acres of land to the U.S.  The greatest U.S. victory in the War of 1812; actually took place 2 weeks after a peace treaty had been signed ending the war.  A meeting of Federalists in Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812.  A treaty signed by the U.S. and Britain ending the War of 1812.

3 Jeffersonian Era: Chapter 8  Election of 1800 – “Revolution of 1800”  Feds to Dem-Reps  Federalists – Adams & Pinckney  Dem-Reps – Jefferson & Burr  Revolution because 1 st time U.S. has a transfer of power in gov’t  Electoral vote went to Dem-Reps… but was a tie b/w Jefferson and Burr OH NO! (Dem-Reps Messed it up)  House of Reps decide the president in cases of an Electoral Vote tie  And the sitting (Federalist) Congress decides the presidency!  ection/ ection/ Aaron Burr Thomas Jefferson

4 Significance of the Election  Electors – cast two ballots  Most votes = President  2 nd most votes = Vice-President  Dem-Reps didn’t throw one away, instead split the ticket in half 73/73  It will take the Congress 36 votes before a tie is broken.  Jefferson declared winner because of Hamilton’s help.  The political takeover will be peaceful with only egos taking a hit.  The election will cement political division in America b/w North and South.  North – pro-business & manufacturing as well as centralized gov’t beliefs  South – pro-agriculture & states’ rights and decentralized power beliefs.  12 th Amendment – corrects the electoral mistake by having electors vote for one ticket (each ticket has a candidate for Pres & VP).  It goes into effect for the 1804 election.

5 Hamilton’s role in Decision  He is against Adams although he is President and party leader  Supports Pinckney, thus creating turmoil within the Fed Party  During tie-breaker vote – support Jefferson and convinced other Feds to vote for TJ  thought Burr lacked character and was untrustworthy.  This comes back to bite Hamilton  Burr vs. Hamilton Duel of 1804  Hamilton is not winning

6 Jefferson’s Policies (3 rd President) He believed in and wanted to:  Limit gov’t powers  Supported the will of the majority  Lowered military spending and size of armed forces  Cut unpopular taxes like the Whiskey tax  Agreed to keep the Bank of U.S.  Jefferson had an ally in Congress – Exec and Leg Branches were Dem- Reps  Only opposition was the Judiciary – Federalists appointed before he was President.

7 Marbury vs. Madison  Case is about a late appointment by Adams (Marbury) that was blocked by Sec. of State Madison.  Supreme Court decided against Marbury claiming the law he cited was unconstitutional.  ESTABLISHED JUDICIAL REVIEW  No power written in the Constitution for the Supreme court to rule on federal laws.  They give themselves the power to do this.  Judicial Review will then be used in every court case after this first one and is now considered part of the unwritten Constitution.

8 Louisiana  Controlled by the Spanish but given back to France in 1802.  Napoleon (emperor) looking to use the land to restore France’s power in the world.  Americans lost access to New Orleans, upsetting agricultural trade in the frontier.  Jefferson sends Livingston and Madison to buy New Orleans only.

9 Louisiana Purchase  Napoleon wanted to use Haiti to launch military attacks into Louisiana.  Lost Haiti in a slave revolt and decided to give up on Louisiana.  Focused on Europe and offers Louisiana for $15 million  That is less than.03 an acre  Automatically doubles the size of the U.S. extending our land from the Miss R. to Rocky Mts.

10 Lewis and Clark Expedition  The expedition (Corps of Discovery) was responsible for claiming and discovering the land the U.S. had bought.  They were to map the area, trade w/ and learn about Native groups, describe landforms, plants, and animals.  The kept journals of everything they saw and reported back to Jefferson.  The sailed rivers, carried boats around waterfalls, and climbed mt. ranges.  They used Charbonneau and his wife Sacagawea (had a baby) as interpreters and guides along their journey.  The Corps left St. Louis, MO in May 1804 – Reached Rockies in Fall ‘05 – Reached Pacific in Winter ‘05.  Returned to St. Louis in Sept of ‘06

11 Zebulon Pike  Tasked with discovering the start of the Red River. (TX & OK)  Discovered Pikes Peak in Colorado never reached the summit!

12 The Coming of War  World trade is a hostile environment  Barbary Pirates (N. Africa) needed to be put down by U.S. Navy between 1801-1805  France and England go to war again, neither want U.S. to help.  England begins Impressment methods to gain more soldiers.  Customary in colonial times, now it outrages the young country.

13 Embargo Act & Non-Intercourse (1807 -1809)  To punish Europe but only hurts the U.S. economy.  Lost a lot of money w/o international trade.  Jefferson’s popularity took a big hit  Non-Inter law didn’t work either and only conflict would settle the disagreement.

14 Tecumseh  Americans want land in Great Lakes area.  Natives want to keep their land.  G. B. sees opportunity knocking – stop American advance.  With G.B. aid, Tecumseh united other tribes to fight back vs. Americans.  Wm. H. Harrison then defeat’s Natives (Tecumseh absent) at Tippecanoe (1811).

15 War? (1807 – 1811)  War Hawks want war with G.B. believing they mastermind conflict w/ Natives.  They wanted land in Canada and outright independence from Britain.  Federalists opposed war and wanted better trade options with G.B.  Also worried about our ability to win.  For the first time, Congress Declared war on another nation (Madison).

16 War of 1812 & Creek War  Battle of Lake Erie helped secure Great Lakes area for U.S.  Tecumseh’s death also hurt British alliance with natives.  Our Capital invaded and buildings burnt (White House)  Next attack stopped in Baltimore at Ft. McHenry (Star-Spangled Banner)  Jackson defeat against the Creek Nation in Alabama gave America more native land.  Jackson then destroys British at New Orleans…2 weeks after the Peace Treaty was signed!

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