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WORLD WAR II America and the World. Underlying Themes  Nationalism  Economic Situations in every country pretty bad  Civil Unrest  Radical Measures.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II America and the World. Underlying Themes  Nationalism  Economic Situations in every country pretty bad  Civil Unrest  Radical Measures."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II America and the World

2 Underlying Themes  Nationalism  Economic Situations in every country pretty bad  Civil Unrest  Radical Measures  Propaganda

3 Italy  1919: Benito Mussolini creates Italy’s Fascist Party  Fascism: Nationalistic movement that considered the nation to be more important than the individual  Believe order in society comes through a strong government/dictatorship  Largely anti-communist…big role in getting support  1922: Mussolini threatens a march on Rome with the Fascist militia the Blackshirts  Leaders resign, Mussolini named premier

4 Soviet Union  Communistic Party in charge  One-party rule, suppressed individual liberties, and punished opponents  Joseph Stalin: Soviet Dictator in WWII  Massive industrialization; Huge loss of wages  Collectives: Government-owned farms  Usage of concentration camps 2 million people by 1935 Most in Arctic and used as slave labor By 1953 (End of Stalin’s rule), between 8 and 10 million people died

5 Germany  Many Germans disliked Allies and German government that approved peace terms  Creation of National Socialist German Workers’ Party  Nationalist and Anti-communist  Nov. 1923: Nazis tried to seize power (failed)  Hitler arrested—writes Mein Kampf in prison  New Strategy: Nazis in Reichstag  Works! Hitler named Chancellor in 1933, President by 1934

6 Japan  Very little economic growth…reliance on imports  Military leaders and civilian supporters believe seizing territory the only option to get resources  1931: Manchuria invasion  Japanese Prime Minister assassinated for negotiating with China  Nationalist policy of expansion begins

7 US Stays Neutral  Americans begin to support isolationism  Nye Committee: Investigated allegations that arms manufacturers had tricked the US into entering World War I  Report shows huge profits by arms factories  Impression that gov’t was influenced by business  Neutrality Act of 1935: Illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war  Neutrality Act of 1937: “Cash-and-Carry” for non-military supplies

8 Franklin Delano Roosevelt  1933: Takes office as US President  First job: end the Great Depression  Views: Internationalism  Idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and prevents war  US should preserve peace in the world  Believed “Neutrality Acts” could drag us into war  Sold weapons to China in 1937 to stop Japan  Claimed to not violate Neutrality Act since no war was technically declared  Warned US could not let an “epidemic of lawlessness” infect the world

9 Major Players in the War AXISALLIES GERMANYGREAT BRITAIN ITALYSOVIET UNION JAPANUNITED STATES

10 The Path To War  1935: Hitler announces German military expansion  Violation of Treaty of Versailles; European appeasement  Why? Avoid war, demands reasonable, belief that peace could be reached  1937: Unification of All German-speakers?  Targets: Austria, Czechoslovakia, etc.  Hitler thinks force only means to unification  1938: Anschluss—unification of Germany and Austria  Hitler threatens to invade if Nazis not given gov’t posts  Austrian chancellor gives in, asks to let democracy work Hitler sends in troops in fear of results

11 Sudetenland  Germany claims Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)  Czech resistance  France threatens to fight, Soviet Union promises aid to Czechs; Britain says they will back France  Munich Conference (1938)  Britain, France, Italy, Germany meet  Appeased Hitler; told Czechs to give land to Germany or fight on their own  Failed to protect peace as Germany sends troops to Czech by 1939

12 Danzig and the inevitability of war  Hitler demands Danzig (city in Poland)  90 percent German, but part of Poland since WWI  Requested a highway and railroad across Polish Corridor, which connected Germany and East Prussia  Britain and France realize demands not ending  Attack Poland, we back Poland in war  Poland refused to cede lands, Hitler prepares for invasion  Hitler asks foreign minister to speak with USSR

13 Nazi-Soviet Pact  We all know the Soviets eventually fought the Nazis…but at first Hitler needed a non-aggression pact with the USSR to fight Britain and France  USSR agrees to non-aggression pact (reason: turn capitalism against capitalism)  Secret pact to divide Poland between USSR and Germany  One week after pact, Germany invades Poland (1939); Britain and France declare war

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15 German War Ideas  Blitzkrieg: Lightning War  Massive amounts of tanks to break through enemy lines and encircle enemy positions  Support tanks with bombings of enemy positions and paratroopers cutting supply lines  Strategy used to defeat the Polish military in roughly 1 month

16 Maginot Line  Maginot Line: Line of bunkers and fortifications along the German border with France

17 Fall of France  France opts to wait for Germany to approach Maginot Line  Problem: allowed Germany to focus solely on Poland first (no two front war)  Germany avoids Maginot Line with new blitzkrieg  Sent tanks into Belgium and Luxembourg  France and Britain goes to Belgium to stop attack; believes Ardennes Mtns natural defense  Germans plowed through lines, roll through France, and trapped British and French in Belgium

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20 Operation Dynamo  Evacuation of Dunkirk  338,000 British and French forces saved  Goal was 45,000 troops  Loss of almost all weaponry  French surrender; Petain leader of Vichy France (puppet gov’t of Germany)  Neutral, but not actually  De Gaulle (Free France) resists Vichy France gov’t and works with Allies

21 Battle of Britain  Germany had few transport ships, thus crossing the Channel was difficult even after the fall of France  Strategy: Defeat the Royal Air Force  Luftwaffe (German Air Force) attacks shipping vessels in Channel; then focus on RAF  Aug 23, 1940—Germans accidentally bomb London Britain responds by bombing Berlin; Hitler responds by stopping strategic bombing and attacking London

22 Battle of Britain (continued)  Hitler believed he could scare Britain into surrender  Advantages:  Germany: Number of Bombers  Britain: Radar  October 12, 1940: Hitler ends invasion of Britain

23 Quiz  Name the 3 Major Axis Powers  Name the 3 main leaders of the Allied Powers  What was the fortified area along the France and Germany border known as?  Which term means “lightning war”?

24 And here comes America…  FDR asks Congress to allow arms sales to nations at war  FDR bypasses the laws?  Churchill needs destroyers to stop Germany  US exchanges destroyers for bases on Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands Legality: No actual sale, simply a swap

25 Internationalism or Isolationism?  Destroyers for Bases Deal=Great Success in Public Opinion…for most part  Fight for Freedom Committee: Get rid of neutrality laws and use stronger action against Germany  America First Committee: Isolationist group who wanted to US to give no aid to Allies  Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: Give only aid to Allies but no armed intervention

26 Lend-Lease Act  Lend or Lease Arms to any country “vital to the defense of the United States”  Allowed US to give weapons as long as weapons or rent were received  Passed in Congress by wide margin  Ultimately, US lent billions in weapons, vehicles, and supplies to Allies

27 QUESTION TO THINK ABOUT By giving economic and military aid to Great Britain and other Allied powers (notably USSR), did the United States make itself more likely or less likely to enter into the Second World War?

28 The Great Debate  Today, you will be putting yourself into a debate to defend the ideals of either isolationism or internationalism in July of  With this in mind, you must not discuss any events that happened after July 1941 (Pearl Harbor, US military, etc.)

29 Roles by each team (must be assigned)  3 Researchers  Make arguments supporting your side for the debaters  Support the debaters during the actual debate (may not speak)  3 Debaters  Present the information during the debate  Should help researchers during the preliminary research  2 Artists  Create at least 2 propaganda posters supporting your viewpoint  May be made electronically or by hand Each group will receive (4) laptops and (4) textbooks as resources. Plan wisely.

30 Hemispheric Defense Zone  Questions about how to transfer goods to Britain  U-Boats in Atlantic  Size of British Navy  U.S. Navy unable to protect British ships…why?  Neutrality  Hemispheric Defense Zone: entire western half of Atlantic is neutral, thus FDR tells US Navy to patrol and reveal German locations

31 The Atlantic Charter  August 1941: Roosevelt and Churchill meet outside Newfoundland  Plans for postwar world

32 The Atlantic Charter (continued)  Basic Ideas:  Democracy  Nonaggression  Free Trade  Economic Advancement  Freedom of Seas  15 anti-Axis nations joined US & Britain  Churchill later says FDR pledged to “force an incident…justify opening hostilities” with Germans  9/4/1941: Greer  “Shoot-on-Sight”  Oct 1941: Reuben James (115 dead)

33 Japan-US Relations  US-Britain relations play key role  British navy v. German U-boats…role with Japan?  British possessions in Pacific  Japan needs US  Strategic Materials: fuel (80% of Japan supply), steel, iron  1940: Congress gives Roosevelt power to restrict sales  Japan allies with Germany and Italy

34 Japan-US Relations (continued)  Roosevelt aiding China to prevent Japanese expansion (Lend-lease)  Japan expansion continues…FDR sends MacArthur to Philippines, freezes Japanese assets in US, reduces oil exports even more  Embargo only ends with withdrawal from Indochina and peace with China  Japan losing due to oil shortage…attacks resource-rich Dutch and British colonies

35 A Date Which Will Live In Infamy

36 The Home front and Industry

37 Impact of America’s Entrance  Industrial advantage  2x more productive than Germans; 5x more than Japanese throughout war  1940: Roosevelt declared emergency and planned on building 50,000 warplanes a year; also requested money for “two-ocean” navy Armaments Production, United States$1.5 billion$37.5 billion Britain3.5 billion11.1 billion USSR5.0 billion13.9 billion Germany6.0 billion13.8 billion Japan1.0 billion4.5 billion

38 War Production in America

39 Cost-Plus Contracts  Government agreed to pay companies whatever it cost to make a product plus a percentage of the costs as profit  Speed and quantity key to making money  Very expensive for the government, but increased war production in US  Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) made loans to help companies transition to war production

40 American Industry  Auto industry: producing trucks, tanks, jeeps, aircraft, artillery, mines, etc.  Ford: 8,600 B-24 Bombers  Henry Kaiser: 3,000 Liberty Ships

41 Mobilization Issues  Which supplies and contracts were most important?  War Production Board (WPB): Set priorities and production goals; control raw materials and supplies  Office of War Mobilization (OWM): Settled arguments between government agencies

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44 Military Build-up  1939: Army expanded to 227,000 soldiers  Congress and most Americans oppose peacetime draft  Sept (after fall of France in June): first peacetime draft in US history approved  1941: 60,000+ enlist after Pearl Harbor  Shortages in housing, equipment

45 African Americans in War  Double V Campaign: Victory over Hitler and Racism at home  Tuskegee Airmen: African American Air Force Unit  1943: Integration of Military Bases and Expanded role for minority groups

46 The Battles of World War II Project  In pairs, you will present a detailed analysis of a particular battle in WWII. You will be expected to explain the major people, events, and impact of the battle you are assigned.  Bataan Death March/Doolittle Raid  Battle of Midway  Battle of the Atlantic  Battle of Stalingrad  D-Day Invasion (Operation Overlord)  Battle of the Bulge  Battle of Iwo Jima  Battle of Okinawa

47 The Battles of World War II  You are responsible for knowing each of the following battles in some capacity. I will briefly review these in class but you should have taken notes on them from your reading/webquest  Bataan Death March/Doolittle Raid  Battle of Midway  Battle of the Atlantic  Battle of Stalingrad  D-Day Invasion (Operation Overlord)  Battle of the Bulge  Battle of Iwo Jima  Battle of Okinawa

48 Office of Price Administration  Created during WWII to control prices  Price ceilings on most goods  Best known for rationing  Food stamps  Rationing of tires, automobiles, shoes, nylon, sugar, gasoline, fuel oil, coffee, meats, processed foods, etc.

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50 Victory Gardens in WWII  Idea: Plant your own fruit, vegetable, and herb garden at home to help the war effort!  Less consumption of goods produced=more ability to send to soldiers  Less processing of foods saved on metal and other wartime goods  Morale booster—everyone doing their share to help the war, even at home  First lady Eleanor Roosevelt even planted one

51 US Debt Accrues during the war…  Over $300 billion in debt  10 times more than WWI; equivalent to total US spending since 1776  FDR wants to raise taxes  Congress limits his ability to raise them

52 WWII Propaganda  Consider each of the following:  Message portrayed  Reason poster was created  Effectiveness of poster

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59 Casablanca Conference  January 1943 meeting between mainly FDR and Churchill (some French reps—including De Gaulle—present as well)  Stalin invited, declined to attend due to Stalingrad  Key points  European strategy: Make Germany fight two front war?  Unconditional surrender by Axis  Allied aid to Soviets

60 Tehran Conference  November 1943  Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt all present  Tehran Declaration: Agree to fight Nazi Germany until Hitler is defeated  Plan Operation Overlord (D-Day Invasion)  Divide Germany between Allies  USSR will help with fight against Japan

61 The War in Europe Ends  February and March, 1945  Soviets drive back Germans after Battle of Bulge  US forces cross the Rhine River  Soviets 35 miles from Berlin; US 70 Miles  April 21: Soviets enter Berlin  April 30: Adolf Hitler commits suicide and chooses Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz as his successor  Tried to surrender to the US and British, but not USSR  Eisenhower insisted on “unconditional surrender”

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63 V-E Day  May 8, 1945—Victory In Europe

64 Truman becomes President  April 12, 1945—Roosevelt dies of a stroke  Just weeks before the V-E Day; War in Japan still ongoing

65 Controversial Decisions to be Made  Firebombing Japan with napalm (jellied gasoline)  Questionable because it would start fires that killed civilians  Japan willing to surrender, but wants to keep emperor  US looking only for unconditional surrender  Manhattan Project and the dropping of the bomb

66 V-J Day: August 15, 1945

67 The United Nations  50 Countries organized charter on April 25, 1945  1 delegate in the General Assembly  11 Nation Security Council 5 permanent members (US, Britain, France, China, USSR)  Goal: Prevent future wars and preserve peace  Commission on Human Rights  Headed by Eleanor Roosevelt  Lists 30 rights tat are said to be universal


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