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Ch. 14 The Coming of War.

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1 Ch. 14 The Coming of War

2 Dictators and War Explain how dictators and militaristic regimes arose in several countries in the 1930’s Summarize the actions taken by aggressive regimes in Europe and Asia Analyze the responses of Britain, France, and the United States to the aggressive regimes

3 Dictators and War Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini
Key Terms and People (p. 436) Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Anti-Semitic Spanish Civil War Appeasement Anschluss Munich Pact

4 Bitter Peace Unravels Soviet Union Italy Germany Japan Nations were unhappy about Treaty of Versailles settlement U.S. had a real say in most decisions Germany/Russia were not present Italy/Japan expected more land for their sacrifices Repressive dictatorship/ totalitarianism

5 STALIN Soviet Union—Lenin became first communist leader—followed by Joseph Stalin Transformed USSR into industrial power and formed state-run collective farms—death of over 10 million people (Great Terror) Combination of fear and massive propaganda kept Stalin in power

6 MUSSOLINI Italian totalitarianism was a direct result of WWI/peace treaties Did not get land they wanted/postwar economic depression made it hard to find jobs Gov’t seemed weak/inept Fasci de Combattimento Black Shirts—followers Il Duce—the leader Promised to make the Mediterranean a Great Italian Lake Outlawed political parties, took over press, created secret police, organized youth groups, suppressed strikes

7 THE NAZIS RISE Summary As economic depression and resentment over the Versailles Treaty grew, Germany’s weak Weimar Republic was slowly weakening and the NAZI party was strengthening. The leader, Adolf Hitler and his book, Mein Kampf outlined the reasons for the deteriorating state of Germany and how to go about fixing those problems. Weimar Republic National Socialist German Workers’ Party Adolf Hitler--Fuhrer Mein Kampf— “my struggle” Anti-Semitic Presented a blueprint of his hatreds and plans for world domination

8 HITLER SEIZES POWER Hitler was appointed chancellor in 1933
Eventually became president and consolidated his power and ruled unchecked by the Reichstag (Parliament) Secret police, controlled press, controlled educational-system

1920’s—democracy spread, reduced power of military Great Depression discredited civilian leaders Expansion in Asia would solve economic troubles Constitutional monarchy--emperor

10 Japanese Expand Their Empire
Japan attacked Manchuria (China) Controlled domestic/foreign policies and natural resources Controlled major Chinese railroads and coastal areas “Rape of Nanjing”

Weaknesses of League of Nations: U.S. never joined it No army to enforce No resolve “all talk no action”

Why did the League of Nations fail to halt German and Italian aggression? The League had no power to enforce any laws Hitler rebuilt German economy and military—violation of Treaty of Versailles Hitler spoke of expansion (Lebensraum)—sent troops into the Rhineland Italy invaded and took Ethiopia

Spanish Civil War Nationalists/ fascists vs. democratic Republican gov’t Hitler/Mussolini sent aid to nationalist leader (General Francisco Franco)

Summary Although the U.S., France, and GB appeased Germany to maintain peaceful relations, many European dictators took this opportunity to become more bold. Once Hitler took wester Czechoslovakia, the 3 nations still appeased him and formed the Munich Pact which delayed WWII by 11 months. Appeasement Effect—spurred fascist leaders to become more bold, adventurous, and aggressive U.S. embraced isolationism Anschluss—unifications of Germany Munich Pact

15 Learning Outcomes Understand the course of the early years of WWII in Europe. Describe FDR’s foreign policy in the mid 1930’s and the great debate between interventionists and isolationists. Explain how the U.S. became more involved in the conflict

16 Key Terms and People p. 443 Blitzkrieg Axis Powers Allies
Winston Churchill Neutrality Act of 1939 Tripartite Act of 1939 Lend-Lease Act Atlantic Charter

17 War Erupts in Europe Leaders of France and Britain come to realize that that Hitler can only be stopped by firm defense. Hitler launches a blitzkrieg against Poland Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

18 France Falls to the Axis Powers
Why was it important for Germany to ensure Soviet cooperation before attacking Poland? Axis Powers—Germany, Italy, Japan Allies—Britain, France Maginot Line—interconnected series of fortresses Miracle at Dunkirk—British troops escaped to Britain Winston Churchill Germans took Paris—Occupied and Unoccupied France

19 Battle of Britain Is Fought in the Air
France fell in 35 days—next up was Britain Operation Sea Lion Depended on German Air Force Destroyed houses, factories, and churches British held—Hitler postponed invasion

20 U.S. Isolation vs. Intervention
What did FDR think was the best way to avoid war w/ Germany? Majority of U.S. opposed intervention Great Depression had nation’s attention Neutrality Act 1939 FDR pro-Allies Charles Lindbergh—leading isolationist Tripartite Pact Selective Service Act

21 U.S Takes Steps Towards War
FDR’s 4 Freedoms Speech—speech, worship, want, fear U.S sent aid to Britain Lend-Lease Act—1776 Economic declaration of war against Germany and Axis Atlantic Charter Hitler ordered U-boats to attack American ships

22 Ch. 14 Section 3: AMERICA Enters the war

23 Learning Outcomes Explain why Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and describe the attack itself. Outline how the U.S. mobilized for war after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Summarize the course for the war in the Pacific through the summer of 1942.

24 Key Terms and People p. 454 Hideki Tojo Pearl Harbor WAC
Douglas MacArthur Bataan Death March Battle of Coral Sea

25 Japan Attacks the U.S. America’s presence in Guam and Philippines posed a threat to Japan. FDR posed a strict embargo on Japanese goods because of invasion into China. Hideki Tojo “the razor” Japan was bent on expansion—U.S. firmly against it.

26 Pacific 1941



29 Pearl Harbor What was the relationship between the U.S. and Japan prior to 1941? Through trade What was the root of conflict between the U.S. and Japan? Japan’s desire to expand it’s control over Asia and the U.S.’s resistance. December 7th, 1941— “a date which will live in infamy” Over 2,500 people killed Submarine bases and important fuel supplies and maintenance facilities were unharmed 3rd wave of bombers were cancelled to avoid a counterstrike


31 Mobilizing for War Soviet Union—Allies after German invasion (1941)—left Americans unsure 388 to 1—House Unanimous—Senate Spirit of patriotism spread Women’s Army Corps (WAC)

32 Mobilizing Industry American’s industry started to mobilize in response to the Lend-Lease Act Gov’t created agencies that worked together to allocate scarce materials Massive defense spending ended the Great Depression

33 Fierce Fighting in the Pacific
General Douglas MacArthur Japanese took Guam, Wake Island, and Hong Kong 75,000 Allied soldiers surrendered—Bataan Death March Japan secured oil/rubber supplies and were positioned to dominate the Indian Ocean DATES EVENTS EARLY WAR IN PACIFIC May 1942 The Philippines fall to the Japanese

34 America Strikes Back Tokyo noon air raid
Surprised Japan because they didn’t think U.S. was capable of attack so soon after PH Battle of Coral Sea—Japanese moved to secure New Guinea Marked a shift in momentum toward Americans

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