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** neither side confronted each other on a battle field.

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Presentation on theme: "** neither side confronted each other on a battle field."— Presentation transcript:

1 ** neither side confronted each other on a battle field

2  Yalta- FDR, Churchill, Stalin  Potsdam- Truman, Clement, Stalin

3  50 nations,  General assembly  Responsible for peace keeping  “Big 5”

4  Soviets control of Eastern Europe  Satellite nation: reflect views or dominated by USSR (communist)  East Germany, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland

5  Barrier separating politics between Eastern Europe and Western Europe  Containment : Stop the spread of communism

6  Turkey and Greece  Providing aid to any country in the world fighting against communism

7  Secretary of state George Marshall  $17 billion to rebuild Europe  Aid against hunger, poverty, DESPARATION, CHAOS  Make sure economy is stable so communists would not have an opportunity to take over

8  Western Germany (four zones)  Eastern German (one zone)  Yalta, Potsdam conferences

9  No written agreement to have access to East Berlin  SU blocked East Berlin  Enough supplies for 5 weeks  Berlin Airlif

10  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Western Europe  Military alliance  Soviet response- Warsaw Pact (countries listed on page 1)

11  Chiang Kai-Shek vs Mao Zedong  US supports by sending $2 billion to China  Nationalists weak military and corrupt government  Peasants drawn to communist side  Shek over run by communist party  Flees to Taiwan  China now communist  Est of People’s Republic of China  Containment failed!

12  Japan took over in 1910 and left in 1945  North of the 38 th parallel belong to the soviets  Two zones (one communist and one democratic)  1948, Republic of Korea (South Korea) occupied by the US  South Korea led by Syngman Rhee based in Seoul  1950- NK invaded SK  UN- assist NK

13  16 nations sent aid to SK- 90% US troops led by General Douglas MacArthur  NK control in SK up to Pusan Peninsula  Counteroffensive by China- led by Mao, able to get Seoul  China now in the war on NK side  MacArthur wanted to invade and blockade China

14  China had a mutual pact with Soviets  Attacking China would set off WWIII  MacArthur: Unconditional surrender of NK  MacArthur criticism; MacArthur fired  Summer 1951, Korean War- stalemate  Congress did not declare war, Truman sent troops along with the UN

15  Soviets pushed for seize fire June 23, 1951  Truce talks July 1951  July 1953, armistice signed  Effects of war:  54,000 US soldiers died  $67 billion  Unsuccessful war, public opinion look down on Democrat Party (Truman)

16 North Korea- CommunistSouth Korea- Democratic Kim Jong-Un Park Geun-hye

17  Nuclear arms race began with Truman  US creates the first atomic bomb  Soviets detonates atomic bomb in 1947  Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) 67x what was dropped on Hiroshima- detonated in September 1,1952  Soviets sucessfully create H-bomb in 1953

18  Truman Presidency- US vs SU who can have the most deadliest nuclear weapon  Soviets successful detonate atomic bomb in 1947  US responds with Hydrogen bomb (67x power of bomb dropped on Hiroshima)  Who will be the first to produce Hydrogen bomb??  November 1, 1952 US won the race  Less than a year later, Soviets will produce H-bomb

19  1953-1961  34 th president  Graduated from West Point  Five-Star general in WWII  First supreme commander NATO  Army Chief of Staff under Truman

20  1953 president  Secretary of State John Foster Dulles- moral crusade against communists  Use nuclear weapons and force to contain communism  Go to the edge of an all out war (threat of nuclear warfare)- BRINKMANSHIP  Expanded Air Force (the ones to deliver the bombs)

21  Eisenhower’s containment foreign policy: Brinkmanship (go to the edge of an all out war; use the threat of nuclear attack)  US trimmed its army and navy and expanded its air force and build up nuclear weapons

22  Common under Eisenhower’s administration  School drills  Families built underground fallout shelters  Fear of nuclear war  “Duck and Cover” 



25  July 1955, Eisenhower calls a meeting with Stalin  “open skies”- fly against each other’s territory to make sure no surprise attacks  Step toward peace?


27  1955  GB and US agreed to help Egypt finance construction of a dam at Aswan on the Nile River  Gamal Abdel-Nasser- head of Egypt’s gov  Relations with SU and US  US found out-Dulles removed loan offer  Nasser nationalized Suez Canal (owned by Frace and GB)  Nasser would not let ships bound to Israel pass through  GB, France and Israel sent in troops to Med end of canal  UN stepped in- Egypt control of canal

28  Middle east- the “neutral” countries in between Western (democratic) and Eastern (communist) countries  Most countries did not favor Israel, so sided with Egypt in Suez Crisis  Eisenhower issued his doctrine (Eisenhower Doctrine) in January 1957: US would defend the Middle East against an attack by an communist country.

29  Dominated by SU after WWII  1956- wanted to be democratic  Imre Nagy- Hungarian leader  Read Hungarian Uprising on page 625  How does this incident compare to what is happening in Ukraine?

30 /russia-says-it-has-right-to-intervene-after- deadly-violence-in-ukraine/

31  Eisenhower’s administration relied upon National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency  Spies to gather information abroad  Covert (secret) operations to weaken or overthrow governments that the US thought were a threat to democracy  Head of CIA- Allen Dulles (sec of state’s brother)

32  1953 Stalin died from heart attack  Nikita Khruschev  “communism take over the world peacefully”  Space Race  October, 1957- Soviets launched Sputnik, world’s first satellite to travel around the earth.  Triumph in Soviet technology  Americans shocked, poured money into space programs, NASA  American public worried- long range ballistic missiles now able to reach US  US first attempt to launch satellite, embarrassing  January 1958, US launch first satellite successfully

33 Sputnik Not Sputnik

34  NASA- National Aeronautics and Space Administration  NDEA- National Defense Education Act  response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik  To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union  improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction

35  a communist victory in one nation would quickly lead to a chain reaction of communist takeovers in neighboring states  This theory was later used in Southeast Asia for support of South Vietnam

36  Military Industrial Complex  Do not mix close partnership with industry (business) and military  Business will start to determine military actions 

37  Another way to combat communism  Provide news to Eastern Europe or Middle East  where the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed  US government funds the radio station 1949  Music and uncensored news, broadcasting  USSR tried to stop and spent more money trying to stop it than we spent trying to fund it

38  Navy- south pacific in WWII  Senate  Sep 26, 1960 Kennedy-Nixon TV Debate  youth and charm, marks a turning point in the election  1960- 35 th president  1960-1963 presidency  Assassinated

39  Flexible response- redefine the nation’s nuclear strategy  Opposite from Eisenhower’s mass retaliation/brinkmanship policy  The US would have more ways to handle aggressions rather than nuclear weapons  More money in ground troops

40  Increase defense spending in order to boost conventional military forces- nonnuclear  Troops, ships, and artillery  Elite branch of the army: Special Forces or Green Berets  US now able to fight limited wars while maintaining nuclear balance of power (avoid suicide)

41 U.S. Budget, 1950-2010 Percentage Spent on Defense

42  Batista Cuban leader  US mafia owned most of Cuban businesses  Castro- young, lawyer (personally disgusted with Cuba’s situation)  Red-light districts, casinos, restaurants, etc  Cuban Revolution 1953-1959  US helped Castro because of promise of Democracy

43  Seized three American and British refineries  Broke up commercial lands used for sugar plantations- (US made profits from this)  Wanted America’s strong hold on Cuba out  US trade embargo (sugar)  Cuba looks towards Soviets for assistance  Some Cubans saw Castro as a dictator  10% exiles- Miami, Fl

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