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Chapter 31: A Search For Order

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1 Chapter 31: A Search For Order
Big Picture: Following the Vietnam War, Americans searched for order but their political leaders stumbled badly. President Nixon, accused of covering up a crime, was forced to resign. President Carter was denied a second term for failing to provide strong leadership in relations with Iran and the Soviet Union.

2 Chapter 31 Section 1: The Nixon Years
Main Idea: Beyond the ongoing turmoil of the Vietnam War, the Nixon administration did enjoy some notable success.

3 Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies
Nixon the Conservative The Southern Strategy Nixon had a reputation as a strong conservative and tough on communism He believed that government had grown too big under Democrats and wanted to return power to the states through a plan called New Federalism A key part of this plan was revenue sharing: the federal government would give states block grants to spend with more freedom instead of telling them exactly what to spend the money on Nixon wanted to appeal to white Southerners upset about civil rights gains His goal was to slow down integration to encourage white Southerners to vote Republican During his tenure, most traditionally Democratic Southern states began voting Republican

4 Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies
Drugs and Crime The Other Side of Nixon Nixon believed the government was not doing enough to combat drug use and crime He was concerned about giving the accused too many rights and limiting the power of the police to combat crime He appoints several conservative judges to promote his more conservative views Even though Nixon was a champion for conservative causes, he was willing to take a more liberal stance in some issues He increased funding for food stamps He also increased payments for Social Security

5 Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies
Nixon’s Environmentalism Other Nixon policies 1962: Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring about the harmful effects of chemicals like pesticides on the natural world 1970: Earth Day launched to share ideas about environmental protection 1970: Clean Air Act: regulated levels of air pollution by factories and other sources like cars Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): enforces government laws and regulations about pollution 1970: Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA): works to prevent work related injury and illness through safety standards and training Also encouraged affirmative action for the hiring of minorities and women

6 Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Realpolitik and Détente Nixon in China Nixon changes from containment to realpolitik: basing foreign policy decisions on power and on what is best for the US, not ideology (deal with the most powerful countries, ignore those that are weak) Détente: easing tensions with old Cold War enemies Began talks with the USSR that led to the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty 1 (SALT1) reducing the number of nuclear weapons the US and USSR built Nixon wanted to improve relations with China to increase US trade and put pressure on the Soviets Nixon had to be careful because the US never formally recognized the communists government in China, only the exiled nationalist government based in Taiwan 1972 Nixon travels to China establishing trade and putting pressure on the Soviets to sign SALT I

7 Trouble in the Middle East
Kissinger and shuttle diplomacy Oil Embargo National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger used shuttle diplomacy (traveling to all of the countries involved in the crisis) to work out an agreement to end the fighting and the embargo There were separate deals between Israel and Egypt & Israel and Syria Eventually both the conflict and the embargo came to an end US sided with Israel in conflicts with its Arab nation neighbors like the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War (both US and USSR intervened) During the Yom Kippur War in 1973, OPEC placed an embargo on oil exports to the US (1/3 of US oil came from OPEC) Gas prices rose sharply and shortages were common Higher gas prices also meant higher prices for everything due to increased cost of production and transportation

8 Major Events At Home Space Achievements Inflation and Price Controls
Major goal of NASA was a manned moon mission July 1969: Apollo 11 sends Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins to the moon Armstrong is first man to walk on the moon  millions of Americans watched on TV As Nixon approached re-election in 1972, he faced major economic trouble Both inflation and unemployment were high To try to halt inflation, in August of 1971, Nixon instituted a 90-day price and wage freeze This worked during the freeze, but prices continued to rise after the freeze ended

9 Chapter 31 Section 2: From Watergate to Ford
MAIN IDEA: The Nixon presidency became bogged down in scandal, leading to the first presidential resignation in American history and the administration of Gerald Ford.

10 The Election of 1972 Nixon was very concerned about his re-election in 1972 and wanted to do everything possible to win Ehrlichman and Hadleman created a group called the “Plumbers” tasked with digging up dirt on Nixon’s opponents When Ellsberg released the Pentagon Papers criticizing Nixon’s handling of Vietnam, they broke into his psychiatrist’s office to find information to damage his credibility Early 1972, Nixon’s team breaks into the Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate to collect information on their election strategy and to bug the phones They were caught and two reporters with the Washington Post, Bernstein and Woodward investigated the break-in and found links to the White House At first, not many people paid attention and Nixon was re-elected

11 The Scandal Unfolds The Washington Post Digs Butterfield’s Bombshell
Feb 1973: seven men connected to the break-in go to prison for their crimes During the trials, details emerge pointing to other White House officials involved in the break-in Washington Post continued to report and the public took increasing interest Nixon announces his own investigation in April- several members of the administration are fired or resign, including Erlichman and Haldeman Congress asks for an independent investigation headed by Archibald Cox Butterfield’s Bombshell May- Senate committee begins its own investigation with televised hearings Major question was “What did the President know and when did he know it?” John Dean told the committee that he spoke with Nixon about the break-in and cover up many times July former presidential aide Butterfield revealed that Nixon tape-recorded all conversations in his offices

12 The Scandal Unfolds Saturday Night Massacre Crisis and Resignation
Nixon refused to give investigators access to the tapes, claiming executive privilege- he had the right to keep his conversations private to ensure open and honest advice Any conversation about Watergate is not protected by executive privilege- subpoenas are issued for the tapes Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon orders attorney general Richardson to fire Cox, he refused and resigned, as did his assistant…3rd ranking official agrees to fire Cox Nixon goes on TV, asserts to the public “I am not a crook.” White House eventually releases tapes, but 18 min are missing People began calling for impeachment (formal charges of criminal activity) Spring 1974: Nixon releases transcripts of tapes…not good enough Supreme Court orders Nixon to turn over tapes (Nixon v. US) House Judiciary Committee votes to bring impeachment charges to the full house August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns

13 Gerald Ford’s Presidency
Nixon’s VP Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign earlier over tax evasion charges House Republican leader Gerald Ford took over for Agnew and became president when Nixon resigned Ford promised a time of national healing, but angered many Americans when he granted Nixon a full pardon Ford attempted to tackle inflation by cutting government spending, but ran into opposition because Democrats controlled Congress They pass several new spending bills Ford was also blocked when trying to send additional aid to South Vietnam Communist North Vietnam takes over the entire country Ford also unable to send aid to forces fighting communist rule in Angola Ford attempted to continue policy of détente and realpolitk, kept Kissinger as Secretary of State Relations with Soviet Union continue to improve Ford faced serious political problems and barely got the nomination from the Republicans in 1976

14 Chapter 31 Section 3: Carter’s Presidency
MAIN IDEA: Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win the presidency in 1976, but he soon met challenges that required other qualities as well.

15 Challenges Face the Nation
The Economy and Energy Environmental Concerns Carter was elected due to his deep faith and his Washington outsider reputation Kept his campaign promise to pardon Vietnam draft dodgers Carter was unable to bring down rising inflation, but had more success in energy policy Created the Department of Energy He reduced energy consumption by increasing fuel efficiency standards Reduced dependence on foreign oil by lifting regulations on domestic oil production Also invested in alternative energy sources like wind and solar Carter also believed conservation of energy would reduce pollution passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act setting aside 100 million acres in Alaska and doubled the size of the national parks and wildlife refuge system 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear facility in PA suffered a partial meltdown Love Canal NY discovered toxic chemicals buried in the neighborhood yards The state bought all 200 homes and the federal government cleaned up the toxic mess

16 Carter’s Foreign Policy
A focus on Human Rights/Soviet Relations Carter had no previous foreign policy experience Wanted to focus on human rights- making sure that all nations gave their people freedoms Appointed 1st African American to the UN- Andrew Young Criticized the Soviet Union’s restrictions on free speech Soviet Union refused to reform US and USSR were still able to sign SALT II in 1979 limiting certain types of nuclear weapons Panama, China, and the Camp David Accords 1977 Carter signs a treaty with Panama agreeing to turn over control of the Panama Canal to Panama in 1999 1979 Carter officially recognizes the communist government in China Carter’s greatest foreign policy achievement was the Camp David Accords: a peace agreement between Israel (Menachem Begin) and Egypt (Anwar al-Sadat)

17 International Crises Soviets Invade Afghanistan
1978- government of Afghanistan overthrown and communist government backed by USSR takes over When that government was threatened with a coup in 1979, the Soviets invade to prop up the government US responds by blocking shipment of grain to USSR and boycotting the 1980 Olympics in Moscow Many thought the action was too weak Iranian Hostage Crisis 1979- the Shah of Iran is overthrown and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, an Islamist leader comes to power His message was strongly anti- American When the US allowed the shah to come to the US for cancer treatment, Iranians attacked the Us embasy and took 52 Americans hostage They were held for 444 days– Carter is unable to get them released (major foreign policy failure) This leads to his failure to win re- election in 1980 (hostages released minutes after Reagan takes the oath of office)

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