Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31: A Search For Order"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 31: A Search For Order Big Picture: Following the Vietnam War, Americans searched for order but their political leaders stumbled badly. President Nixon, accused of covering up a crime, was forced to resign. President Carter was denied a second term for failing to provide strong leadership in relations with Iran and the Soviet Union.
2Chapter 31 Section 1: The Nixon Years Main Idea: Beyond the ongoing turmoil of the Vietnam War, the Nixon administration did enjoy some notable success.
3Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies Nixon the ConservativeThe Southern StrategyNixon had a reputation as a strong conservative and tough on communismHe believed that government had grown too big under Democrats and wanted to return power to the states through a plan called New FederalismA key part of this plan was revenue sharing: the federal government would give states block grants to spend with more freedom instead of telling them exactly what to spend the money onNixon wanted to appeal to white Southerners upset about civil rights gainsHis goal was to slow down integration to encourage white Southerners to vote RepublicanDuring his tenure, most traditionally Democratic Southern states began voting Republican
4Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies Drugs and CrimeThe Other Side of NixonNixon believed the government was not doing enough to combat drug use and crimeHe was concerned about giving the accused too many rights and limiting the power of the police to combat crimeHe appoints several conservative judges to promote his more conservative viewsEven though Nixon was a champion for conservative causes, he was willing to take a more liberal stance in some issuesHe increased funding for food stampsHe also increased payments for Social Security
5Nixon’s Politics and Domestic Policies Nixon’s EnvironmentalismOther Nixon policies1962: Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring about the harmful effects of chemicals like pesticides on the natural world1970: Earth Day launched to share ideas about environmental protection1970: Clean Air Act: regulated levels of air pollution by factories and other sources like carsEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA): enforces government laws and regulations about pollution1970: Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA): works to prevent work related injury and illness through safety standards and trainingAlso encouraged affirmative action for the hiring of minorities and women
6Nixon’s Foreign Policy Realpolitik and DétenteNixon in ChinaNixon changes from containment to realpolitik: basing foreign policy decisions on power and on what is best for the US, not ideology (deal with the most powerful countries, ignore those that are weak)Détente: easing tensions with old Cold War enemiesBegan talks with the USSR that led to the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty 1 (SALT1) reducing the number of nuclear weapons the US and USSR builtNixon wanted to improve relations with China to increase US trade and put pressure on the SovietsNixon had to be careful because the US never formally recognized the communists government in China, only the exiled nationalist government based in Taiwan1972 Nixon travels to China establishing trade and putting pressure on the Soviets to sign SALT I
7Trouble in the Middle East Kissinger and shuttle diplomacyOil EmbargoNational Security Advisor Henry Kissinger used shuttle diplomacy (traveling to all of the countries involved in the crisis) to work out an agreement to end the fighting and the embargoThere were separate deals between Israel and Egypt & Israel and SyriaEventually both the conflict and the embargo came to an endUS sided with Israel in conflicts with its Arab nation neighbors like the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War (both US and USSR intervened)During the Yom Kippur War in 1973, OPEC placed an embargo on oil exports to the US (1/3 of US oil came from OPEC)Gas prices rose sharply and shortages were commonHigher gas prices also meant higher prices for everything due to increased cost of production andtransportation
8Major Events At Home Space Achievements Inflation and Price Controls Major goal of NASA was a manned moon missionJuly 1969: Apollo 11 sends Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins to the moonArmstrong is first man to walk on the moon millions of Americans watched on TVAs Nixon approached re-election in 1972, he faced major economic troubleBoth inflation and unemployment were highTo try to halt inflation, in August of 1971, Nixon instituted a 90-day price and wage freezeThis worked during the freeze, but prices continued to rise after the freeze ended
9Chapter 31 Section 2: From Watergate to Ford MAIN IDEA: The Nixon presidency became bogged down in scandal, leading to the first presidential resignation in American history and the administration of Gerald Ford.
10The Election of 1972Nixon was very concerned about his re-election in 1972 and wanted to do everything possible to winEhrlichman and Hadleman created a group called the “Plumbers” tasked with digging up dirt on Nixon’s opponentsWhen Ellsberg released the Pentagon Papers criticizing Nixon’s handling of Vietnam, they broke into his psychiatrist’s office to find information to damage his credibilityEarly 1972, Nixon’s team breaks into the Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate to collect information on their election strategy and to bug the phonesThey were caught and two reporters with the Washington Post, Bernstein and Woodward investigated the break-in and found links to the White HouseAt first, not many people paid attention and Nixon was re-elected
11The Scandal Unfolds The Washington Post Digs Butterfield’s Bombshell Feb 1973: seven men connected to the break-in go to prison for their crimesDuring the trials, details emerge pointing to other White House officials involved in the break-inWashington Post continued to report and the public took increasing interestNixon announces his own investigation in April- several members of the administration are fired or resign, including Erlichman and HaldemanCongress asks for an independent investigation headed by Archibald CoxButterfield’s BombshellMay- Senate committee begins its own investigation with televised hearingsMajor question was “What did the President know and when did he know it?”John Dean told the committee that he spoke with Nixon about the break-in and cover up many timesJuly former presidential aide Butterfield revealed that Nixon tape-recorded all conversations in his offices
12The Scandal Unfolds Saturday Night Massacre Crisis and Resignation Nixon refused to give investigators access to the tapes, claiming executive privilege- he had the right to keep his conversations private to ensure open and honest adviceAny conversation about Watergate is not protected by executive privilege- subpoenas are issued for the tapesSaturday Night Massacre: Nixon orders attorney general Richardson to fire Cox, he refused and resigned, as did his assistant…3rd ranking official agrees to fire CoxNixon goes on TV, asserts to the public “I am not a crook.”White House eventually releases tapes, but 18 min are missingPeople began calling for impeachment (formal charges of criminal activity)Spring 1974: Nixon releases transcripts of tapes…not good enoughSupreme Court orders Nixon to turn over tapes (Nixon v. US)House Judiciary Committee votes to bring impeachment charges to the full houseAugust 8, 1974: Nixon resigns
13Gerald Ford’s Presidency Nixon’s VP Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign earlier over tax evasion chargesHouse Republican leader Gerald Ford took over for Agnew and became president when Nixon resignedFord promised a time of national healing, but angered many Americans when he granted Nixon a full pardonFord attempted to tackle inflation by cutting government spending, but ran into opposition because Democrats controlled CongressThey pass several new spending billsFord was also blocked when trying to send additional aid to South VietnamCommunist North Vietnam takes over the entire countryFord also unable to send aid to forces fighting communist rule in AngolaFord attempted to continue policy of détente and realpolitk, kept Kissinger as Secretary of StateRelations with Soviet Union continue to improveFord faced serious political problems and barely got the nomination from the Republicans in 1976
14Chapter 31 Section 3: Carter’s Presidency MAIN IDEA: Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win the presidency in 1976, but he soon met challenges that required other qualities as well.
15Challenges Face the Nation The Economy and EnergyEnvironmental ConcernsCarter was elected due to his deep faith and his Washington outsider reputationKept his campaign promise to pardon Vietnam draft dodgersCarter was unable to bring down rising inflation, but had more success in energy policyCreated the Department of EnergyHe reduced energy consumption by increasing fuel efficiency standardsReduced dependence on foreign oil by lifting regulations on domestic oil productionAlso invested in alternative energy sources like wind and solarCarter also believed conservation of energy would reduce pollutionpassed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act setting aside 100 million acres in Alaska and doubled the size of the national parks and wildlife refuge system1979 Three Mile Island nuclear facility in PA suffered a partial meltdownLove Canal NY discovered toxic chemicals buried in the neighborhood yardsThe state bought all 200 homes and the federal government cleaned up the toxic mess
16Carter’s Foreign Policy A focus on Human Rights/Soviet RelationsCarter had no previous foreign policy experienceWanted to focus on human rights- making sure that all nations gave their people freedomsAppointed 1st African American to the UN- Andrew YoungCriticized the Soviet Union’s restrictions on free speechSoviet Union refused to reformUS and USSR were still able to sign SALT II in 1979 limiting certain types of nuclear weaponsPanama, China, and the Camp David Accords1977 Carter signs a treaty with Panama agreeing to turn over control of the Panama Canal to Panama in 19991979 Carter officially recognizes the communist government in ChinaCarter’s greatest foreign policy achievement was the Camp David Accords: a peace agreement between Israel (Menachem Begin) and Egypt (Anwar al-Sadat)
17International Crises Soviets Invade Afghanistan 1978- government of Afghanistan overthrown and communist government backed by USSR takes overWhen that government was threatened with a coup in 1979, the Soviets invade to prop up the governmentUS responds by blocking shipment of grain to USSR and boycotting the 1980 Olympics in MoscowMany thought the action was too weakIranian Hostage Crisis1979- the Shah of Iran is overthrown and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, an Islamist leader comes to powerHis message was strongly anti- AmericanWhen the US allowed the shah to come to the US for cancer treatment, Iranians attacked the Us embasy and took 52 Americans hostageThey were held for 444 days– Carter is unable to get them released (major foreign policy failure)This leads to his failure to win re- election in 1980 (hostages released minutes after Reagan takes the oath of office)