Presentation on theme: "Latin America “anything South of the United States”"— Presentation transcript:
Latin America “anything South of the United States”
Ancient Civilizations Mayans -Central America -concept of 0, large temples, 365 day calendar Incas -Extensive road system to maintain the Empire (like Rome) -Terrace farming for agriculture on the mountain sides Aztecs -Capital city of Tenochtitlan ruled by Montezuma -City built with Chinampas, or floating gardens. -Chinampas were used to grow more food
Exploration (3) New advances led to increased sailing: Compass, Astrolabe, Cartography, Caravel ships Portuguese and Spanish dominate exploration: PortugueseSpanish Prince Henry the Navigator -fleet of ships explore African Coast finding Cape of Good Hope (Dias 1488) -Vasco da Gama found all water trade route to India’s port cities Columbus Sails West towards Asia -The New world is split b/t Spain and Portugal by Treaty of Tordesillas -Founded Columbian Exchange- Global transfer of goods, food, ideas and people
Discovery The Americas were discovered by Christopher Columbus who established trading routes between Europe and the “West Indies” Latin America was quickly populated by European settlers looking to strike it rich with gold. The trade route between the Americas and Europe was the Columbian Exchange.
Columbian Exchange PositivesNegatives -New foods thrived in Europe and created a surplus of food (increase population) -permanent contact between the East and West established -disease spread from Europe to the New world killing millions -Natives were subjected to a form of slavery under the Encomienda system -African Slave trade begins
Encomienda Peninsulares- Spanish Born Creoles- American born Spanish Mestizos- Spanish and Native American Mulattoes- Spanish and African Natives and African (slaves) Most Social systems in history are based on socio-economic status, such as occupation. What is the Encomienda system based on? Race A racial social structure meant which effectively enslaved the Native Americans
Mercantilism As trade with the American colonies increased many Europeans began investing in companies to make a profit. European nations also adopted Mercantilism. This policy involves a nation building up their wealth by EXPORTING more than they IMPORT. In other words, they sell more than they buy.
Revolutionary Fever The people of Latin America had witnessed the American Revolution. Then the French Revolution. They were inspired by both, particularly the creoles, who read translated copies of the American Declaration of Independence. Lack of political influence Distant foreign king American Outdated social system Financial crisis French Unfair Social classes Lack of political influence Latin
Catalyst for change When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain in 1808 the people of Spanish controlled Latin America saw it as an opportunity to revolt. Napoleon placed his brother on the throne of Spain. Latin American leaders saw this as a sign of Spain’s weakness. With Spain preoccupied with the French, the opportunity for them to demand independence from colonial rule had arrived. The Spark!!
Latin American Revolutions Haiti -led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, the slaves of Haiti rebelled Mexico -Father Miguel Hidalgo led a peasant revolt to free the Mexicans from Spanish rule. He was unsuccessful -Mexico earned independence in 1802 but struggled with democracy Columbia -Simon “the Liberator” Bolivar leads Columbians and others in independence throughout Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. -envisions a Gran Columbia but political differences and geography prevents it 7:48
Third World Latin America is considered a third world nation because much of the area lacks water supplies, many areas deal with struggling governments and limited infrastructure. As third world nations, Latin America provides cheap labor, new markets, and resources
Cuban Revolution Cuba did not gain independence until 1902 with help from the US. The US maintained puppet governments led by presidents backed by the US. The US maintained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs for decades, and US investors mostly controlled Cuba’s economy. Fidel Castro made several attempts at Coup’s to overthrow Cuba’s government, but did not succeed until 1958/59 Castro created a Socialist and Communist government, and the Cold War era US cut off relations. Today, diplomatic relations are strained and an Embargo prevents trade.