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Demographic and Economic Changes 1790- 1860 Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Demographic and Economic Changes 1790- 1860 Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Demographic and Economic Changes Chapter 9

2 Increased Population and Westward Movement Growth in size of the country from 13 states (1790) to 33 states (1860) Population growth 4 million (1790) to 30 million (1860) More people began moving west of the Appalachian Mountains (after 1790) and west of the Mississippi (1820) More people began to move into cities Even in 1860 most people still lived in rural areas, but the number living in cities was increasing rapidly

3 Increased Population

4 Population Moving West

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9 Westward Movement Frontier life not glamorous Frontier not barren/completely vacant French/Spanish going back to 1600s Native Americans Environmental impact of westward expansion Bluegrass in Kentucky No more forests in the Midwest/New England Changes in climate New animals, plants

10 Immigration and the New Immigrants Beginning in the 1830s, 1840s number of immigrants began to increase dramatically Immigrants began to come from new countries “New Immigrants” Ireland and Germany What’s significant about the new immigrants? New countries—not just England New religion—especially Roman Catholicism What’s the problem with Catholicism? Large number of poor immigrants

11 Irish Immigration Push and pull factors for immigrants Push Potato famine Poverty in Ireland Religious and political oppression by the British Pull Economic opportunity in the US Religious tolerance Areas of settlement for the Irish: Northeastern cities, why?

12 German Immigration Push Religious intolerance in German states Economic problems Warfare and forced military service Pull Religious tolerance and economic opportunity in US Not all German immigrants were Catholic (about half) German immigrants tended to be wealthier (left more for pull reasons than push) Areas of German settlement: More dispersed, throughout the Northern US (modern Midwest especially)

13 Increased Immigration: The New Immigrants (Irish and German)

14 Anti-immigrant Reaction Native-born Americans (Native Americans) resented new immigrants, why? Competition New cultures/ethnicities New religions No Irish Need Apply Know-Nothing Party, American Party

15 Irish and German Immigrants met with hostility in America

16 Stereotypical view of the Irish

17 Irish Stereotypes: II

18 Irish Stereotype: III

19 Impact of Immigration Growth of cities fueled by immigrants More immigrants located in Northeastern cities meant more workers for factories—industrialization Immigrants changed the nature of politics Political Machine Major population growth in the North, not as fast in the South, tensions....? More political power for the North, how? Cultural contributions

20 Technological Advances The cotton gin: Eli Whitney Effects on Southern economy Effects on Slavery McCormick’s mechanical reaper Invented by Cyrus McCorkmick Brought mechanization to farming out west Market economy came to US agriculture Not just growing food to survive—subsistence farming—or for local consumption, US farmers were now involved in the worldwide market for agricultural products Pros, Cons? Telegraph: Samuel Morse—increased communication Steam Engine Allowed for the mechanization of factories, ships, trains

21 Innovations in Transportation Roads 1790s  National Road (Cumberland Road)—federally financed road, most roads were privately financed, or state financed Turnpikes—privately owned roads Canals 1820s  1850s Eerie Canal 1825 connected Great Lakes to Hudson River, made NYC important trade center Canals built linking navigable rivers to cities, inland areas, lakes, other rivers Steamboats 1810s  Robert Fulton and the Clermont 1807 Made two-way travel on rivers easier Railroad 1830s  Advantages over canals and roads By ,000 miles of track in US but ¾ in the North Significance of man-made east-west transportation links

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24 Growth in Roads, Canals, and Railroads

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30 Industrialization Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 1700s First factory in US, Samuel Slater, Pawtucket RI 1791 Spread of factories in US slow 1790s-1820s Hard to find workers Opposition from government Competition with foreign industry Embargo Act of 1807, War of 1812 helped facilitate the growth of US factories, how? Protective tariffs beginning in 1816 helped protect industry Where would industry be located? Middle States and New England became the main centers of industrial production

31 Impact of Industrialization Market Economy for US workers Independent shopkeeper done away with (slowly over time) replaced by wage laborers and the factory system More efficient, more goods produced (richer country) but less independence for the worker, also worse working conditions Women and children in the workforce Lowell and Lawrence Massachusetts first experimented with employing large numbers of women outside the home—women could be paid less Reinvigoration for the North Ever since election of 1800 North had been decreasing in political and economic importance to the South and West, industrialization changed that More economic power, more political power Political Tensions Northern business owners didn’t want westward expansion, why? Different economic systems meant political competition N vs S


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