2 The New GovernmentGeorge Washington is elected the 1st president by the Electoral College in 1788Inaugurated in 1789
3 George WashingtonMany precedents, or traditions, were established during Washington’s term as President.These are also known as the unwritten constitution.Examples the Cabinet, political parties, serving two terms as president.These came about in order to help the government run better.
4 Establishing U.S. Foreign Policy In 1789, the French Revolution broke outBy 1792, the British were at war with France to stop the spread of the French RevolutionWho should the U.S. support?Alexander Hamilton Support Great BritainThomas Jefferson Support France
5 Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 President Washington issues the Proclamation of NeutralityThe U.S. will not take sides in the war in EuropeWhy does the U.S. proclaim neutrality?Too weak to defend itselfAtlantic Ocean separates us, and allows us to stay neutralAllows the U.S. to focus on domestic issues (economy, westward expansion, etc)
6 Impact of the Proclamation of Neutrality “the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent Powers”Washington does what is best for the United StatesNeutrality/Isolationism becomes the U.S. foreign policy until World War I in 1917.
7 Hamilton’s Economic Plan Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton proposed a 4-part plan to stimulate the American economyIt was a very controversial plan1. Assumption PlanThe Federal government would take over (or assume) the debt of the states in order to establish credit for the U.S.Northerners supported this, Southerners didn’t Hamilton and James Madison agreed to pass this law if the capital moved to the South (Washington, D.C. is created).
8 Hamilton’s Economic Plan 2. Protective TariffHamilton wanted to pass a tariff to help pay off this debtSoutherners objected (they thought it would raise prices for all goods), and it does not pass Congress3. Excise Tax (Tax on domestic goods)Hamilton also wanted to tax some domestic goodsA tax on whiskey was passed, that led farmers in Pennsylvania to revolt in 1794 (Whiskey Rebellion). This rebellion was put down by Washington, and proved the new government was stronger than it was under the Articles of Confederation
9 Hamilton’s Economic Plan 4. National BankHe also proposed a national bankThe bank would be able to lend the government money, print currency, and extend credit to business (regulate the nation’s money supply)It passed in Congress, and was chartered for 20 yearsIt would put the U.S. on a strong financial footing
10 Opposition to the National Bank Thomas Jefferson led the opposition to the bankHe believed it gave the government too much power, and was unconstitutionalHis opposition led to the formation of the first political parties
11 Formation of Political Parties Democratic-RepublicansFederalistsLed by JeffersonOpposed to the national bankWanted a weaker federal government, and stronger statesStrict interpretation of the Constitution--If the Constitution does not mention something, then it is unconstitutionalLed by HamiltonSupported the national bankFavored a stronger federal governmentLoose interpretation of the Constitution (elastic clause)--If the Constitution does not ban something, then it is constitutional
12 Washington’s Farewell Address In 1796 Washington retired after two termsHe issued a Farewell AddressAvoid political parties (create disunity)The U.S. should continue its neutrality policy with Europe1796—V.P. John Adams is elected the 2nd president2 terms in office becomes a tradition, proves the U.S. won’t become a dictatorship
13 The Election of 1800 Adams vs Jefferson Neither candidate won a majority in the Electoral CollegeHouse of Representatives decided the election—elected Jefferson over Adams and Aaron BurrImpactfirst peaceful transfer of power (from Federalists to Democratic-Republicans)
14 Thomas JeffersonBrought a new ideology (set of beliefs) to the governmentWanted a smaller, weaker federal governmentBelieved in a strict interpretation of the ConstitutionThought the United States should be a nation of small farmers1803Marbury v. Madison—establishes Supreme Court’s ability of judicial review
15 Louisiana Purchase 1803Jefferson wanted to ensure U.S. access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans for tradeNapoleon offers all of Louisiana to the U.S. for $15 million (3 cents an acre)Constitutional issue Can the U.S. buy Louisiana if Jefferson follows belief of strict interpretation?
16 Impact of Louisiana Purchase Doubles the size of the United StatesAccess to rivers for trade and westward expansionMany natural resources
17 The War of 1812 Causes of the War of 1812 1. Impressment of US sailors by British navy1807—Embargo Act—US bans trade w/Great Britain; fails to stop the British2. British support of Native American attacks on western settlers“War Hawks” western congressmen in favor of warPresident James Madison asks Congress to declare war—1st declared war in US historyThe US has major disadvantages against Great Britain:Smaller, untrained army and navy
18 The War of 1812 Great Britain wins most of the battles 1814—Washington, D.C. invaded and the White House burned downTreaty of Ghent (1814)The U.S. and Great Britain agree toreturn to the borders before thewar.Treaty is beneficial to the UnitedStatesBattle of New Orleans (1815)Fought after the treaty (slow communication); the United States wins; leads to the rise of Andrew Jackson and begins a period of nationalism
19 Nationalism/Era of Good Feelings The War of 1812 led to a period of nationalism“Era of Good Feelings”—only one political party (Democratic-Republicans) and little disunityPride in US because of Battle of New OrleansNew policies that strengthened the governmentSupreme Court Decisions1819—McCulloch vs. Maryland1824—Gibbons vs. OgdenForeign PolicyMonroe Doctrine (1823)US will continue policy of neutrality in Europe if European countries stay out of the Western Hemisphere (the Americas)