Presentation on theme: "The Main Idea – Chapter 7 This chapter discusses how business is conducted internationally. 7.1 discusses the trading of goods and services between countries."— Presentation transcript:
The Main Idea – Chapter 7 This chapter discusses how business is conducted internationally. 7.1 discusses the trading of goods and services between countries and how governments protect their producers 7.2 describes the growing economic interdependence among countries
Objectives: -Describe how the concepts of absolute and comparative advantage determine what countries produce. -Explain why businesses export and import -Discuss how foreign exchange rates affect imports and exports
Quick! Get a piece of paper In one minute… Write as many foreign countries as you can
Domestic vs International Business What is domestic business? It is the making, buying, and selling of goods and services within a country What is international business? Business activities needed for creating, shipping, and selling goods and services across national borders.
Who can guess how many countries the US trades with?
Class exercise Go to www.bls.gov/oohwww.bls.gov/ooh Research and discover at least three jobs that deal with international business On a piece of paper, list the three jobs and tell me: 1. Summarize the nature of the work 2. What the job outlook is 3. Summarize what the earnings (hourly wage or salary) are for the position. 4. Put in bin when finished.
International Trade What is the main reason for international trade? What impact does it have on the US economy?
International trade The exchange of goods and services by different countries. Most of the world today depends on international trade to maintain its standard of living.
Absolute and Comparative Advantage Absolute Advantage- Exists when a country can produce a good/service at a lower cost than other countries. Examples – South America has AA with coffee production and Saudi Arabia has AA in oil production. What do we have an AA in?
Absolute advantage The ability to produce more of a good than another producer. The US has an absolute advantage in: grains, automobiles, metals including aluminum and copper, electrical and telecommunications equipment and food.
Absolute and Comparative Advantage Comparative Advantage- A situation in which a country specializes in the production of a good/service at which it is relatively more efficient at producing Example - A 7’ tall rabbi and a 5’ tall priest walk into a strawberry field lined with apple trees. They must harvest both crops before they can meet their maker. Who picks what?
The law of comparative advantage Comparative advantage Producers should produce the goods they are most efficient at producing and purchase from others the goods they are less efficient at producing. Individuals, companies, and countries should specialize in what they do best.
Exporting and Importing What’s the difference? Who is the largest exporting country in the world? –No. Not China. Its us, the US! $700B goods/services a year. Who is the largest importing country? Yep! The US – about $900B
Exporting exports Goods and services sold to other countries *1 of every 6 jobs in the US depends on international business! Some things the US exports: Factory/farm machinery, food, agricultural products, chemicals, fertilizers, medicines, plastics, movies, tv shows, books, magazines.
Exporting Why would a company want to export products? Diversification- engaging in a variety of operations.
Importing Imports Goods and services purchased abroad Did you know that bananas, cocoa, spices, tea, silk and crude rubber are 100% imported from other countries?
Imports (cont’d) The US buys about 20- 50% of: Crude oil Fish Carpets Sugar Leather gloves Dishes Sewing machines
On a piece of paper… Please list the top ten imports and exports of the US and list the monetary value of each.
Measuring Trade Relations Why do we work and have jobs? With that money we buy goods/services that we need. If we spend more than we earn, we get into financial troubles (debt)….nothing different than with countries.
Balance of Trade If a country exports (sells) more than it imports (buys), it has a trade If a country imports more than it exports, it has a trade, which is unfavorable Balance of trade The difference between the value of a country’s total exports and total imports (total exports-total imports=balance of trade) surplus. deficit
International Currency Russia uses the ruble, the European Union uses the euro, Brazil the real, India the rupee, and Saudi Arabia the riyal. How can all these different countries accept payment from another if they don’t use the same money?
Foreign Exchange Rates The process of exchanging one currency for another occurs in the foreign exchange market Bunch of banks that buy currencies and resell other ones.
Balance of payments exchange rate is the value of currency in one country compared with the value in another. Most large banks provide currency services for businesses and consumers. Supply and demand affects the value of currency.
Exchange rate calculator Find an online exchange rate calculator How is the U.S. Dollar doing against the EURO?
Protectionism Trade barriers Government actions can create restrictions to free trade Formal trade barriers are political actions by the government Informal trade barriers are when the culture, traditions, and religion of a country hinder trade
International trade barriers/Protectionism Tariff Quota Embargo
Protectionism tariff A tax that a gov’t places on certain imported products Boston tea party – what happened? Many people believe that tariffs should be used to protect US jobs from foreign competition. What would happen to the prices at the store for us?
Protectionism quota When a gov’t sets a limit on the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported Countries do this to regulate international trade Why would a country want to set a quota on international trade?
Protectionism embargo When a gov’t stops the export or import of a product completely Embargos can be placed on an entire country…anyone know who we have an embargo against? Cuba Gov’ts enact these to protect their products/services more than a quota or tariff can
As of October, 2007, the United States has sanctions (embargos) against: –Colombia, no drug-related exports, since 1972 (see Colombia-United States relations)ColombiaColombia-United States relations –Côte d'Ivoire/Ivory Coast, since 1986 (see Côte d'Ivoire – United States relations)Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire – United States relations –Cuba, since 1962 (see United States embargo against Cuba)CubaUnited States embargo against Cuba –Democratic Republic of the Congo, since 1998 (see Democratic Republic of the Congo – United States relations)Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the Congo – United States relations –Iran, since 1979 (see Sanctions against Iran)IranSanctions against Iran –Republic of the Congo (see Republic of the Congo-United States relations)Republic of the CongoRepublic of the Congo-United States relations –Somalia, since 1990 (supplies arms to the Transitional Federal Government, but no general trade. See Somalia-United States relations)SomaliaTransitional Federal GovernmentSomalia-United States relations –Myanmar, since 1997 (see Burma – United States relations)MyanmarBurma – United States relations –North Korea, since 1950 (see North Korea – United States relations)North KoreaNorth Korea – United States relations –Sudan, since 2002 (see Sudan – United States relations)SudanSudan – United States relations –Syria, since 1986 (see Syria – United States relations)SyriaSyria – United States relations Source: www.Wikipedia.com