Presentation on theme: "Cold War Intensifies. United Nations partition plan 1947 Recognized by both super-powers, the US and the Soviet Union President Truman recognized."— Presentation transcript:
Cold War Intensifies
United Nations partition plan 1947 Recognized by both super-powers, the US and the Soviet Union President Truman recognized the state of Israel, going against most of his advisors
Egypt put troops along Israel’s border and Israel launched a pre-emptive strike; Jordan and Syria joined Egypt
Israel took control of the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip (from Egypt); the Golan Heights (from Syria); and the West Bank (from Jordan);
Egypt and Syria attack Israel; Nixon Administration sided with Israel, Arab nations retaliated with an oil embargo that caused serious shortages in US.
Palestinians displaced when Israel was created in the 1940s Arab countries refusal to admit Israel’s right to exist; Israel settling territories it gained in the Six Day War
President Jimmy Carter negotiates peace in Middle East calls Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat and Israeli leader Menachim Begin to Camp David in Maryland Thirteen-day negotiations
Signed at the White House in 1979, brokered by Carter Israel agreed to gradual withdrawal from Sinai Peninsula. Egypt first Arab nation to recognize Israel.
In the 1950s, the CIA had helped overthrow Iranian government, and the Shah of Iran was installed; In 1979, a revolution against the westernized and dictatorial shah resulted in a Shiite Islamic fundamentalist government (Ayatollah Khomeini)
Extremely anti- American
Carter admitted the Shah to the US for medical treatment It was demanded that the Shah be returned to Iran. Carter froze Iranian assets in US banks and placed an embargo on Iranian oil.
November 1979, the US Embassy in Iran was broken into and sixty Americans were seized.
In April 1980 Carter sent a small military operation into Iran, but the rescue mission failed and hostages remained prisoners until January 1981. the wreckage
Carter loses election in 1980, he believed because of the hostage crisis Reagan presidential campaign fears an “October Surprise” or release of hostages before the election Credible sources that Reagan’s advisors secretly negotiated the release to occur on his inauguration day.
Reagan adopted a more aggressive attitude toward the Soviet Union, even referring to it as an ‘Evil Empire.’
Dramatic increase from $158 billion during the Carter administration to $216 billion per year. This is higher than during the Vietnam War. Bombers Missiles Nuclear weapons in Europe Larger Navy A rapid deployment force
Rally of 700,000 people in NYC in 1982 Hundreds of thousands of Europeans protest deployment of new US missiles in NATO countries An Iranian-sponsored terrorist group exploded a car bomb near a Marine barracks in Lebanon killing 241 Americans
Army Colonel Colin Powell approved decision to withdraw from Lebanon, believing that “America [was]sticking its hand into a thousand-year- old hornet’s nest.”
Most countries, including the Soviets, could not afford to compete with the money the US invested in weaponry Non-state organizations or “terrorist groups” responded with guerilla tactics, bombings, and attacks.
Prop up brutal Salvadoran government against leftists Dismantle leftist government in Nicaragua by supporting the “contras” or opposition to the Sandinistas
US Congress repeatedly and clearly instructed the President to stop aid to the Contras in Nicaragua. The majority of Nicaraguans supported their government
Supported the Contras through legal and illegal means to dismantle the government in Nicaragua
Senior US officials agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran despite our embargo Why? To secure release of hostages To fund contras in Nicaragua
August 20, 1985. 96 TOW anti-tank missiles September 14, 1985. 408 more TOWs November 24, 1985. 18 Hawk anti-aircraft missiles February 17, 1986. 500 TOWs February 27, 1986. 500 TOWs May 24, 1986. 508 TOWs, 240 Hawk spare parts August 4, 1986. More Hawk spares October 28, 1986. 500 TOWs According to the New York Times
plan eventually deteriorated into an arms-for- hostages scheme, in which members of the executive branch (Reagan White House including VP George H.W. Bush) sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of the American hostages Both the sale of weapons to Iran, and the funding of the Contras, attempted to circumvent not only stated administration policy, but also acts of Congress (Boland Amendment)
Oliver North was convicted, but conviction overturned on a technicality Independent Prosecutor determined that both President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H.W. Bush knew about the diverted funds As President, Bush pardoned six other officials in 1992 The head of the Nicaraguan government lost power in part because US involvement ruined that country’s economy.
Aided Afghan rebels against the Soviet- backed government in Afghanistan In the African nation of Angola, the US armed rebel forces against the government supported by the Soviets and Cuba Sided with South African government which was brutally suppressing black protest against apartheid.
US Congress went against Reagan’s policy in So Africa, imposing sanctions against that government US Congress would not approve aid for the Nicaraguan “contras” US Congress approved $4 billion during the 1980s sent to El Salvador’s brutal military
Reagan Administration invades Grenada Propped up the brutal government of El Salvador because it was anti-communist Supported the “contras” in Nicaragua, those opposing the Socialist but elected government
A new Soviet leader in Mikail Gorbachev who introduced some elements of free enterprise “glasnost” or greater freedom of expression Huge expenditures on defense spending were a motivation for arms reductions talks
Arrives at agreement with Reagan to eliminate all short and medium range missiles from Europe Announced a gradual withdrawal from Afghanistan