Presentation on theme: "Continuing conflict in the New Nation"— Presentation transcript:
1Continuing conflict in the New Nation The Gentry’s struggle to define the Republic and contain democracy
2In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States. Electors from the 11 states that had passed the Constitution met in January 1789 to vote.They formed a group called the electoral college– a body of electors appointed by State leaders to select the president (check on “democracy”).Washington unanimous choice.Congress and the president organized the executive and judicial branches of government.The new government would set precedents, or examples, for future action.Congress created executive departments. CabinetCongress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 to set up the federal court system.The act created three levels of federal courts and defined powers
4Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s views on government and the economy. Believed in a strong central government, rule by an elite and limitations on “democracy”Wanted to promote manufacturing and business and higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American manufacturersloose construction of the Constitution—the government can take actions the Constitution does not forbid.The Bank of the United States— the country’s first national bank—was chartered in 1791.Jefferson’s ViewsWanted to protect the states power; supported right of “the people” to rule the countrySupported agriculture and farmers and lower tariffs to keep costs low for goods farmers boughtConstitution did not give Congress the power to create the bankstrict construction view of the Constitution— the government should do only what the Constitution says it can do
5The United States tried to remain neutral regarding events in Europe. The French Revolution against the French king broke out in 1789.France and Great Britain later went to war.Some Americans supported the French.President Washington and others wanted to remain neutral.United States issued Neutrality Proclamation, in 1793, saying it would not take sides.Jay’s Treaty, 1794The British were seizing American ships in the French West Indies.settled disputes between the two countries in the 1790s, but unpopular due to Concessions.Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795.Resolved dispute w/ Spain, southern U.S. border was set at 31° N latitude.The port of New Orleans reopened.
6In his Farewell Address, Washington advised the nation. Warned the nation to work out its political differences, remain one strong UnionSuggested promotion of education to create informed citizensWarned against too much public debtWarned against dangers of foreign ties
7John Adams’s Presidency The Big IdeaThe development of political parties in the United States contributed to differing ideas about the role of the federal government.Main IdeasThe rise of political parties created competition in the election of 1796.The XYZ affair caused problems for President John Adams.Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts.
8Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts. Four laws were passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress to crush the Democratic-Republican opposition to war in 1798.The Sedition Act forbade anyone from publishing or voicing criticism of the federal government.Jefferson and Madison viewed the acts as a misuse of government power.Kentucky and Virginia ResolutionsJefferson and Madison wrote resolutions passed by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures.Interposition and nullificationThe documents argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.They supported the idea that states could challenge the federal government.
9Jefferson Becomes President The Big IdeaThomas Jefferson’s election began a new era in American government.Main IdeasThe election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition in power from one political party to another.President Jefferson’s beliefs about the federal government were reflected in his policies.Marbury v. Madison increased the power of the judicial branch of government. Other rulings expanded power of federal government.
10Parties and Beliefs Adams and the Federalists Rule by the wealthy classStrong federal governmentEmphasis on manufacturingLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionBritish allianceJefferson and the Democratic-RepublicansRule by the peopleStrong state governmentsEmphasis on agricultureStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionFrench alliance
11Importance of Judicial Review Chief Justice John Marshall wrote Court’s opinion in Marbury v. Madison.Ruling established judicial review—Court’s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.This ruling made judicial branch equal to other two branches of government.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) asserted implied powers of Congress in allowing for creation of national bank.
12Violations of U.S. neutrality led Congress to enact a ban on trade. Overseas trade was profitable but risky.British and French tried to stop the United States from aiding the other while they were at war in 1803.British stopped American merchant ships to search for British sailors who had run away from British navy. (Impressment = force captured sailors to serve in B. Navy)
13United States’ Response to Impressment Embargo ActEmbargo Act passed in 1807, banning trade with all foreign countries to punish Britain and FranceDevastated American merchants, who lost much money without tradeDamaged Jefferson and strengthened FederalistsHad little effect on Britain and FranceNon-Intercourse ActCongress replaced unpopular Embargo Act with Non-Intercourse Act in 1809.Banned trade only with Britain, France, and their coloniesU.S. trade would resume with first side to stop violating American neutralityLaw was no more successful than Embargo Act
141811-1812, War Hawks led a growing call for war with Great Britain. Evidence of British support for Tecumseh inflamed Americans.Some young members of Congress from the South and West, called War Hawks, demanded war against Britain.They were angered by British trade restrictions and wanted to invade Canada for more land to settle.The OppositionNew England Federalists opposed war.British trade restrictions hurt New England’s economy.Others argued that the United States was not ready to fight.
16The effects of the war included prosperity and national pride. Group of New England Federalists agreed at the Hartford Convention to oppose war, but the war ended before the delegates met with Congress.War’s end made party lose power.Hartford ConventionTreaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.Each nation returned conquered territory.Treaty of GhentFeelings of patriotism among AmericansPower of many Native American groups brokenLack of goods during blockade boosted American manufacturing.Consequences
17Growing nationalism led to improvements in the nation’s transportation systems, 1815-1825 Nationalism: Devotion to and development of one’s nation. Nation: a historically developed community of people with a territory, economic life, distinctive culture, and language in common.Henry Clay proposed the American System: a series of measures to make America economically self-sufficient.National bank to provide a single currency, and improved roads and canals funded by a protective tariffSome in Congress felt such improvements were not permitted by the Constitution.Clay argued that possible gains for the country justified federal action.Congress agreed with Clay.
18The Era of Good Feelings, 1815-1825 National unity strengthened by two Supreme Court decisions that reinforced federal power.Supreme Court used its implied power of Judicial Review to strengthen the Federal Government’s power.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) asserted implied powers of Congress in allowing for creation of national bank.Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) said states could not interfere with power of Congress to regulate interstate trade.