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Continuing conflict in the New Nation

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1 Continuing conflict in the New Nation
The Gentry’s struggle to define the Republic and contain democracy

2 In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States.
Electors from the 11 states that had passed the Constitution met in January 1789 to vote. They formed a group called the electoral college– a body of electors appointed by State leaders to select the president (check on “democracy”). Washington unanimous choice. Congress and the president organized the executive and judicial branches of government. The new government would set precedents, or examples, for future action. Congress created executive departments. Cabinet Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 to set up the federal court system. The act created three levels of federal courts and defined powers

3 Hamilton’s economic plan, p 239

4 Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s views on government and the economy.
Believed in a strong central government, rule by an elite and limitations on “democracy” Wanted to promote manufacturing and business and higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American manufacturers loose construction of the Constitution—the government can take actions the Constitution does not forbid. The Bank of the United States— the country’s first national bank—was chartered in 1791. Jefferson’s Views Wanted to protect the states power; supported right of “the people” to rule the country Supported agriculture and farmers and lower tariffs to keep costs low for goods farmers bought Constitution did not give Congress the power to create the bank strict construction view of the Constitution— the government should do only what the Constitution says it can do

5 The United States tried to remain neutral regarding events in Europe.
The French Revolution against the French king broke out in 1789. France and Great Britain later went to war. Some Americans supported the French. President Washington and others wanted to remain neutral. United States issued Neutrality Proclamation, in 1793, saying it would not take sides. Jay’s Treaty, 1794 The British were seizing American ships in the French West Indies. settled disputes between the two countries in the 1790s, but unpopular due to Concessions. Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795. Resolved dispute w/ Spain, southern U.S. border was set at 31° N latitude. The port of New Orleans reopened.

6 In his Farewell Address, Washington advised the nation.
Warned the nation to work out its political differences, remain one strong Union Suggested promotion of education to create informed citizens Warned against too much public debt Warned against dangers of foreign ties

7 John Adams’s Presidency
The Big Idea The development of political parties in the United States contributed to differing ideas about the role of the federal government. Main Ideas The rise of political parties created competition in the election of 1796. The XYZ affair caused problems for President John Adams. Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts.

8 Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Four laws were passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress to crush the Democratic-Republican opposition to war in 1798. The Sedition Act forbade anyone from publishing or voicing criticism of the federal government. Jefferson and Madison viewed the acts as a misuse of government power. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Jefferson and Madison wrote resolutions passed by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures. Interposition and nullification The documents argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. They supported the idea that states could challenge the federal government.

9 Jefferson Becomes President
The Big Idea Thomas Jefferson’s election began a new era in American government. Main Ideas The election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition in power from one political party to another. President Jefferson’s beliefs about the federal government were reflected in his policies. Marbury v. Madison increased the power of the judicial branch of government. Other rulings expanded power of federal government.

10 Parties and Beliefs Adams and the Federalists
Rule by the wealthy class Strong federal government Emphasis on manufacturing Loose interpretation of the Constitution British alliance Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans Rule by the people Strong state governments Emphasis on agriculture Strict interpretation of the Constitution French alliance

11 Importance of Judicial Review
Chief Justice John Marshall wrote Court’s opinion in Marbury v. Madison. Ruling established judicial review—Court’s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. This ruling made judicial branch equal to other two branches of government. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) asserted implied powers of Congress in allowing for creation of national bank.

12 Violations of U.S. neutrality led Congress to enact a ban on trade.
Overseas trade was profitable but risky. British and French tried to stop the United States from aiding the other while they were at war in 1803. British stopped American merchant ships to search for British sailors who had run away from British navy. (Impressment = force captured sailors to serve in B. Navy)

13 United States’ Response to Impressment
Embargo Act Embargo Act passed in 1807, banning trade with all foreign countries to punish Britain and France Devastated American merchants, who lost much money without trade Damaged Jefferson and strengthened Federalists Had little effect on Britain and France Non-Intercourse Act Congress replaced unpopular Embargo Act with Non-Intercourse Act in 1809. Banned trade only with Britain, France, and their colonies U.S. trade would resume with first side to stop violating American neutrality Law was no more successful than Embargo Act

14 1811-1812, War Hawks led a growing call for war with Great Britain.
Evidence of British support for Tecumseh inflamed Americans. Some young members of Congress from the South and West, called War Hawks, demanded war against Britain. They were angered by British trade restrictions and wanted to invade Canada for more land to settle. The Opposition New England Federalists opposed war. British trade restrictions hurt New England’s economy. Others argued that the United States was not ready to fight.


16 The effects of the war included prosperity and national pride.
Group of New England Federalists agreed at the Hartford Convention to oppose war, but the war ended before the delegates met with Congress. War’s end made party lose power. Hartford Convention Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812. Each nation returned conquered territory. Treaty of Ghent Feelings of patriotism among Americans Power of many Native American groups broken Lack of goods during blockade boosted American manufacturing. Consequences

17 Growing nationalism led to improvements in the nation’s transportation systems, 1815-1825
Nationalism: Devotion to and development of one’s nation. Nation: a historically developed community of people with a territory, economic life, distinctive culture, and language in common. Henry Clay proposed the American System: a series of measures to make America economically self-sufficient. National bank to provide a single currency, and improved roads and canals funded by a protective tariff Some in Congress felt such improvements were not permitted by the Constitution. Clay argued that possible gains for the country justified federal action. Congress agreed with Clay.

18 The Era of Good Feelings, 1815-1825
National unity strengthened by two Supreme Court decisions that reinforced federal power. Supreme Court used its implied power of Judicial Review to strengthen the Federal Government’s power. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) asserted implied powers of Congress in allowing for creation of national bank. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) said states could not interfere with power of Congress to regulate interstate trade.

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