Presentation on theme: "HOA Review #1 Causes of Independence Movements Social Structure in Latin America Important People Monroe Doctrine War of 1812."— Presentation transcript:
HOA Review #1 Causes of Independence Movements Social Structure in Latin America Important People Monroe Doctrine War of 1812
Causes of American Revolution (SPERM) The Enlightenment British rule & laws Conflict in Boston Social Divisions Economic Freedom
Unrest in Boston Tea Act (1773) – Increased the tax on tea – Stated colonists could only buy tea from British companies (London Company) – Increased punishment for illegal trade or smuggling tea Boston Tea Party: colonists snuck onto tea ships and dumped the chests of tea into the harbor. “The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor” by: Nathan Currier, 1846
British Response to Tea Party In order to punish the colonists, Parliament passed the Coercive or “Intolerable” Acts (1774) – Boston Port Act: closed the Boston port until all tea had been repaid – Massachusetts Government Act: reinstate British control in MA; King appointed new governors & outlawed town meetings – Administration of Justice Act: allowed governors to move trials of accused royal officials to Great Britain if he believed the official could not get a fair trial in Massachusetts – Quartering Act: required colonists to provide housing for British soldiers – Quebec Act: Extended the boundaries of the British-controlled Quebec, west of the Mississippi River
Causes of Latin American Revolutions The Enlightenment The American & French Revolutions Economic problems Nationalism Social Divisions
Latin American Social Hierarchy Peninsulares: colonial leaders born in Spain or Portugal; held all important military and political positions. Creoles: colonial-born white aristocrats; controlled most of the land and business Mestizos (Native/White) & Mulattoes (Black/White) – mixed races; worked as servants and unskilled laborers Slaves
Why didn’t the creoles like the peninsular Spaniards? Peninsulares came to power as government administrators or in private enterprises
Role of the Catholic Church Priests and monks converted Natives & taught them loyalty to the crown. The clergy held high positions and worked with the colonial government. By 1800, the Catholic Church controlled almost half the wealth in Latin America. Spain and Portugal implemented trade restrictions and high taxes to finance wars, the church and the expansion of their empire
Evaluate the impact of economic measures and political ideas, in promoting independence in two colonies in the region.
Analyze the political, economic, and military reasons for US victory in the American Revolution.
Why did America win the Revolution? Guerilla Warfare (knowledge of terrain) Espionage New weapons (long-barrel rifle) Leadership (Washington) Foreign Aide (France-Lafayette, Prussia-von Steuben) Battle of Saratoga Willpower/mentality – fighting for their lives, not just the king
Important People Washington Jefferson – Wrote essays criticizing the English monarchy, supported “natural rights,” claimed government allegiance to the king was voluntary, appointed by the Second Continental Congress to draft the Declaration of Independence, third president San Martin – Argentine: Educated in Spain and acquainted with Enlightenment ideas, believed in individual rights and autonomy of nations, although he remained a moderate monarchist. In the Americas, he participated in government meetings sharing these ideas (revolutionary movements already begun), conceived the idea of a revolutionary militia as main force in Chile and Peru, accepted wide array of people into military, became revolutionary authority of Peru and helped consolidate the success of wars of independence in the South (Argentina, Chile, Peru)
Important People Bolivar – Spent youth in Europe, where he learned the ideas of enlightenment, from a wealthy, aristocratic family, which allowed him to gain the support of the elite in Venezuela, defended republican principles in emerging Latin American nations; in order to achieve his aims, he marched his troops from Venezuela towards the south through Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; believed that all groups should participate in the independence movement, including the indigenous population (mostly fearful of slave revolts) L’Ouveture – Former slave, inspired by American/French Revolutions and Enlightenment, led slave revolt at same time as Haitian Revolution, killed and replaced by Dessalines (more radical)
Compare and Contrast the contribution of two of the leaders in the process of independence movements in the Americas.
Compare and contrast two leaders Compare: influences of Enlightenment, reaction to colonial mismanagement, concepts of republican ideals Contrast: Differences in social structure, political experience, involvement in actual conflict, military vs. political leadership, elected vs. non-elected
FOR WHAT REASONS, AND FOR WHAT RESULTS, WAS THE MONROE DOCTRINE ESTABLISHED IN 1823?
Monroe Doctrine December 2, 1823 Efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention. Also stated that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence (except Cuba and Puerto Rico) The U.S. wanted to guarantee no European power would move into Latin America
Monroe Doctrine’s Usage Against Russia’s expansion into NW U.S. Against Spanish/English interest in the Yucatan Peninsula Warn Spain to stay out of Dominican Republic Against the involvement of France in Mexico Against European interest to build the Panama Canal Against British involvement in disputes between Venezuela and British Guiana Military intervention in Dominican Republic, Haiti, Nicaragua, Cuba and Puerto Rico
Why did the United States go to war against British North America in 1812?
War of 1812 Causes Effects
Foreign Relations post-Revolutionary Period In the early 1800’s France and Britain victimized the United States. Navies of both countries seized 1,500 American merchant ships. By 1807, the British had captured 10,000 American sailors. (Most were forced to serve in British military)
The U.S.S. Chesapeake Explain the Chesapeake Incident. In 1806, Royal Navy deserters joined the crew of the USS Chesapeake British admiral issued orders that any warship could search the Chesapeake for deserters. On June 22, 1807, the British ship, Leopard, encountered it and requested a search Chesapeake captain, James Barron refused to allow a search The British fired, killing 3 Americans and wounding 18. The British arrested four men How did President Jefferson respond to the Chesapeake Incident? He passed the Embargo Act!
Embargo Act Describe the purpose of the Embargo Act. Was it successful? President Jefferson signed the Embargo Act which stopped the export of goods and forbade American ships from sailing for foreign ports. Jefferson thought that by depriving European countries of American products they would stop harassing the young nation………… he was wrong. The Embargo Act had almost no effect on Britain and France. Instead, recession and unemployment swept the United States. Jefferson left office in 1809 but not before he convinced Congress to repeal the Embargo Act. It was now up to new president, James Madison, to solve foreign issues.
Causes of the War of 1812 Describe the causes of the War of British blockade of US ships stopped flow of goods to Napoleonic Europe Search and seizure of neutral North American trade ships & cargo by France and England Impressment of American sailors into the British Royal Navy British support of Natives against American expansion Possible American desire to annex Canada
British Aide to Native Americans Who was Tecumseh? Leader of Shawnee Formed a confederation of other tribes and allied with British & British Canadians Goal was to establish an American Indian nation under British protection
Fighting the War of 1812 Napoleon still controlled parts of Europe. During the first two years, England focused on defeating Napoleon, so they fought a defensive battle in the Americas. This will eventually change in 1814, when Napoleon is defeated
End of the War of 1812 What did the Treaty of Ghent declare? Signed on Christmas Eve, 1814 Ended the war (acted more as an armistice than a treaty) Both sides agreed to return to pre-1812 borders War ended in a stalemate Why do you think the Treaty did not include anything about Native territory or impressment?
Battle of New Orleans Explain the causes/effects of the Battle of Orleans. British attempted to capture New Orleans and seize control of Mississippi River. Americans under command of General Andrew Jackson Greatest U.S. victory of the war (U.S. only suffered 100 casualties, compared to England’s 2,000) Important because it ended British operations in the U.S., and marked the start of Jackson’s march to presidency.
Effects of the War of 1812 List three effects of the War of British kept Canada Britain realized they needed to improve relations with the U.S. Rush-Bagot Treaty reduced naval forces on the Great Lakes Britain fortified border (the U.S. never invaded)