Presentation on theme: "HOA Review #1 Causes of Independence Movements"— Presentation transcript:
1HOA Review #1 Causes of Independence Movements Social Structure in Latin AmericaImportant PeopleMonroe DoctrineWar of 1812
2Causes of American Revolution (SPERM) The EnlightenmentBritish rule & lawsConflict in BostonSocial DivisionsEconomic Freedom
3“The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor” by: Nathan Currier, 1846 Unrest in BostonTea Act (1773)Increased the tax on teaStated colonists could only buy tea from British companies (London Company)Increased punishment for illegal trade or smuggling teaBoston Tea Party: colonists snuck onto tea ships and dumped the chests of tea into the harbor.“The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor” by: Nathan Currier, 1846
4British Response to Tea Party In order to punish the colonists, Parliament passed the Coercive or “Intolerable” Acts (1774)Boston Port Act: closed the Boston port until all tea had been repaidMassachusetts Government Act: reinstate British control in MA; King appointed new governors & outlawed town meetingsAdministration of Justice Act: allowed governors to move trials of accused royal officials to Great Britain if he believed the official could not get a fair trial in MassachusettsQuartering Act: required colonists to provide housing for British soldiersQuebec Act: Extended the boundaries of the British-controlled Quebec, west of the Mississippi River
5Causes of Latin American Revolutions The EnlightenmentThe American & French RevolutionsEconomic problemsNationalismSocial Divisions
6Latin American Social Hierarchy Peninsulares: colonial leaders born in Spain or Portugal; held all important military and political positions.Creoles: colonial-born white aristocrats; controlled most of the land and businessMestizos (Native/White) & Mulattoes (Black/White) – mixed races; worked as servants and unskilled laborersSlaves
7Why didn’t the creoles like the peninsular Spaniards? Peninsulares came to power as government administrators or in private enterprises
8Role of the Catholic Church Priests and monks converted Natives & taught them loyalty to the crown.The clergy held high positions and worked with the colonial government.By 1800, the Catholic Church controlled almost half the wealth in Latin America.Spain and Portugal implemented trade restrictions and high taxes to finance wars, the church and the expansion of their empire
9Evaluate the impact of economic measures and political ideas, in promoting independence in two colonies in the region.
10Analyze the political, economic, and military reasons for US victory in the American Revolution.
11Why did America win the Revolution? Guerilla Warfare (knowledge of terrain)EspionageNew weapons (long-barrel rifle)Leadership (Washington)Foreign Aide (France-Lafayette, Prussia-von Steuben) Battle of SaratogaWillpower/mentality – fighting for their lives, not just the king
12Important People Washington Jefferson San Martin Wrote essays criticizing the English monarchy, supported “natural rights,” claimed government allegiance to the king was voluntary, appointed by the Second Continental Congress to draft the Declaration of Independence, third presidentSan MartinArgentine: Educated in Spain and acquainted with Enlightenment ideas, believed in individual rights and autonomy of nations, although he remained a moderate monarchist. In the Americas, he participated in government meetings sharing these ideas (revolutionary movements already begun), conceived the idea of a revolutionary militia as main force in Chile and Peru, accepted wide array of people into military, became revolutionary authority of Peru and helped consolidate the success of wars of independence in the South (Argentina, Chile, Peru)
13Important People Bolivar L’Ouveture Spent youth in Europe, where he learned the ideas of enlightenment, from a wealthy, aristocratic family, which allowed him to gain the support of the elite in Venezuela, defended republican principles in emerging Latin American nations; in order to achieve his aims, he marched his troops from Venezuela towards the south through Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; believed that all groups should participate in the independence movement, including the indigenous population (mostly fearful of slave revolts)L’OuvetureFormer slave, inspired by American/French Revolutions and Enlightenment, led slave revolt at same time as Haitian Revolution, killed and replaced by Dessalines (more radical)
14Compare and Contrast the contribution of two of the leaders in the process of independence movements in the Americas.
15Compare and contrast two leaders Compare: influences of Enlightenment, reaction to colonial mismanagement, concepts of republican idealsContrast: Differences in social structure, political experience, involvement in actual conflict, military vs. political leadership, elected vs. non-elected
16For what reasons, and for what results, was the Monroe doctrine established in 1823?
17Monroe Doctrine December 2, 1823 Efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.Also stated that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.The Doctrine was issued at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence (except Cuba and Puerto Rico)The U.S. wanted to guarantee no European power would move into Latin America
18Monroe Doctrine’s Usage Against Russia’s expansion into NW U.S.Against Spanish/English interest in the Yucatan PeninsulaWarn Spain to stay out of Dominican RepublicAgainst the involvement of France in MexicoAgainst European interest to build the Panama CanalAgainst British involvement in disputes between Venezuela and British GuianaMilitary intervention in Dominican Republic, Haiti, Nicaragua, Cuba and Puerto Rico
19Why did the United States go to war against British North America in 1812?
21Foreign Relations post-Revolutionary Period In the early 1800’s France and Britain victimized the United States.Navies of both countries seized 1,500 American merchant ships.By 1807, the British had captured 10,000 American sailors. (Most were forced to serve in British military)
22The U.S.S. Chesapeake Explain the Chesapeake Incident. In 1806, Royal Navy deserters joined the crew of the USS ChesapeakeBritish admiral issued orders that any warship could search the Chesapeake for deserters.On June 22, 1807, the British ship, Leopard, encountered it and requested a searchChesapeake captain, James Barron refused to allow a searchThe British fired, killing 3 Americans and wounding 18.The British arrested four menHow did President Jefferson respond to the Chesapeake Incident?He passed the Embargo Act!
23Embargo ActDescribe the purpose of the Embargo Act. Was it successful?President Jefferson signed the Embargo Act which stopped the export of goods and forbade American ships from sailing for foreign ports.Jefferson thought that by depriving European countries of American products they would stop harassing the young nation………… he was wrong.The Embargo Act had almost no effect on Britain and France. Instead, recession and unemployment swept the United States.Jefferson left office in 1809 but not before he convinced Congress to repeal the Embargo Act.It was now up to new president, James Madison, to solve foreign issues.
24Causes of the War of 1812 Describe the causes of the War of 1812. British blockade of US ships stopped flow of goods to Napoleonic EuropeSearch and seizure of neutral North American trade ships & cargo by France and EnglandImpressment of American sailors into the British Royal NavyBritish support of Natives against American expansionPossible American desire to annex Canada
25British Aide to Native Americans Who was Tecumseh?Leader of ShawneeFormed a confederation of other tribes and allied with British & British CanadiansGoal was to establish an American Indian nation under British protection
26Fighting the War of 1812 Napoleon still controlled parts of Europe. During the first two years, England focused on defeating Napoleon, so they fought a defensive battle in the Americas.This will eventually change in 1814, when Napoleon is defeated
27End of the War of 1812 What did the Treaty of Ghent declare? Signed on Christmas Eve, 1814Ended the war (acted more as an armistice than a treaty)Both sides agreed to return to pre-1812 bordersWar ended in a stalemateWhy do you think the Treaty did not include anything about Native territory or impressment?
28Battle of New OrleansExplain the causes/effects of the Battle of Orleans.British attempted to capture New Orleans and seize control of Mississippi River.Americans under command of General Andrew JacksonGreatest U.S. victory of the war (U.S. only suffered 100 casualties, compared to England’s 2,000)Important because it ended British operations in the U.S., and marked the start of Jackson’s march to presidency.
29Effects of the War of 1812 List three effects of the War of 1812. British kept CanadaBritain realized they needed to improve relations with the U.S.Rush-Bagot Treaty reduced naval forces on the Great LakesBritain fortified border (the U.S. never invaded)