Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7. Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800 Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson Jefferson, Republican, takes office with Burr as."— Presentation transcript:
Burr and Jefferson tie in the election of 1800 Alexander Hamilton supports Jefferson Jefferson, Republican, takes office with Burr as VP Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another Inaugural address: “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
Abolished all internal taxes (whiskey tax) Reduced government spending Cut federal debt almost in half Reduced the size of the army and navy 50% Retired most of the navy’s warships (Critics claimed he left the nation defenseless) He tried removed the “midnight appointees”- judges appointed by Adams
North African states (Pasha of Tripoli) demanded tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean Jefferson dispatched U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” U.S. ends up paying $60,000 for the release of U.S. sailors
Jefferson tried to deny Federalist Marbury his judgeship. Marbury took his case to the Supreme Court which ruled the court had no authority to order James Madison to deliver the commission. They ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. ***Under Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison (1803) the ruling established the Supreme Court’s right of judicial review of federal legislation and executive action.
Established one of the most important principles of American constitutional law: The right of judicial review. . The Supreme Court held that the Court itself has the final say on the meaning of the Constitution (interpretation and application) as well as the power to nullify an act of Congress.
1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism and insanity Republicans began to fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary. Jefferson made the situation worse by seeking to impeach Federalist Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase The Republican Senate refused to convict Chase. No attempt has been made since to restructure the court through impeachment.
Intense migration to West after 1790 New States included Kentucky--1792 Tennessee--1796 Ohio—1803 ***Water transportation is essential to westward expansion and New Orleans connected these markets to the world
1801--France bought Louisiana from Spain 1803--Jefferson sent diplomats to France to buy New Orleans Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million (4 cents an acre) The Constitution is vague on Congressional authority to purchase LA ****Jefferson abandons his position of a “strict” interpretation of the Constitution to purchase LA territory
Louisiana inhabitants were French & Spanish Jefferson denies them self-rule=“Taxation without representation” Louisiana was governed from Washington This was another Jeffersonian departure from Republicanism The boundaries of the territory are not clear.
Lewis and Clark Expedition was commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and returned in 1806. They were gone for 21/2 years and covered 8,000 miles. Sacagawea, Shoshone Indian guide Both men agreed the area beyond the Missouri—though rich in resources--was not fit for settlement.
Vice-President Aaron Burr breaks with Jefferson 1804--Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governor’s race Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s efforts Burr kills Hamilton in a duel
Burr fled to the west after Hamilton duel Some believed Burr planned to invade Spanish territory and convince western states to secede from the union. Burr was arrested and tried for treason John Marshall acquitted on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence He fled to England but returned years later to live as an outcast in the U.S. “The wickedest man alive.”
1803--England and France resumed war (Napoleonic Wars) American ships were subject to seizure: Between 1803 and 1807, the British seized 500 American ships and France seized 300. Impressments=seizing U.S. sailors for service in English navy (Chesapeake-Leopard Incident) Jefferson refused to declare war. Instead, he cut off trade with France and England instead. Embargo Act of 1807-Jefferson’s alternative to war
Embargo Act prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port. Embargo crippled the American economy. American exports dropped from $108 million in 1807 to $22 million. Imports dropped from $138 million to $57 million. Merchants declared bankruptcy, jobs were lost, banks closed Jefferson stopped enforcing the embargo
The population doubled every 20 years Americans moved westward rapidly leading to disputes over land and relocation and conflict with Native Americans Westward movement led to the creation of new states and a shift in political power from the east to the western region Religious revivals sweep the nation (Second Great Awakening) and new religious groups are organized—Methodists, Baptists, Mormons, etc.
The national economy grows rapidly and Americans seize opportunities for economic and social gains –very ambitious! Crime rate spiked Three wrong assumptions of the founding generation: 1. They could control westward expansion 2. They could deal with the Indians in a humane manner 3. Slavery would die a natural death
Part of the “Virginia Dynasty” and founding generation Father of the Constitution Author of the Federalist Papers Supporter of the Bill of Rights Dem-Republican along with Jefferson
Westward expansion, land disputes Growing population Religious revivalism “Second Great Awakening” Great Britain and France were at war (Napoleonic Wars) US ships were caught between the warring nations Embargo Act had damaged the US economy Indian unrest in the Northeast and the South Importation of slaves ended in 1808
1808--James Madison was elected President and Britain and France were at war 1809--Embargo was repealed in favor of Non-Intercourse Act-reopens trade with all nations EXCEPT Britain and France Macon’s Bill No. 2-U.S. resumed trade with France and Britain as long as both allowed unrestricted trade
1. Americans resented British occupation of forts in the Northwest where they supplied Indians in attacks against American settlers 2. British seizure of American ships and impressment of American citizens 3. As the nation moved westward, the region gained political power in Congress. “War Hawks” from the western states supported war with Britain=Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun 4. Some Americans hoped to gain territory in Canada and Florida
Americans believed the British were supporting Tecumseh’s Western campaign Congressional War Hawks demanded war against England to preserve American honor June 1, 1812, Madison sent to Congress a declaration of war
Small national budget=1/15 th the size of England’s Had only 7,500 men on military rolls American navy had 16 warships and 7 frigates British navy had 166 frigates and 124 large warships Americans planned to attack Canada
1814--three-pronged English attack campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain campaign in the Chesapeake resulted in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore campaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815 (13 casualties to 2000 British) Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814
Federalists convened December, 1814 Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West and the President Federalists talked of secession Treaty of Ghent and the victory of New Orleans made Convention appear disloyal Federalist party never recovered
Most problems left unaddressed Senate unanimously ratified the Treaty of Ghent Americans claimed success in a "second war of independence"
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died July 4, 1826 James Madison died in 1836 He despaired that Declaration’s principles not yet extended to African Americans