Presentation on theme: "The War in the Pacific. Setting the Scene: September 1940: Japan joins forces with Germany and Italy in the Tripartite Pact (promised mutual support against."— Presentation transcript:
The War in the Pacific
Setting the Scene: September 1940: Japan joins forces with Germany and Italy in the Tripartite Pact (promised mutual support against aggression) Japanese expansion threatening US economic interests in Asia
Why was the US Fighting Japan? Beginning in 1931 Japanese troops began invading parts of China and continued expanding their invasion throughout the 1930s (ie. Manchurian Crisis with weak League of Nations response) September The U.S. placed an embargo on Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, scrap iron, and aviation fuel to Japan, due to Japan's takeover of northern French Indochina.
June 1941 through the end of July Japan occupied southern Indochina. Two days later, the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands froze Japanese assets. British PM Churchill feared that Hong Kong (British colony in the Pacific) would be next – asked Canada to send troops to help with defence The U.S. wanted to stop Japanese expansion but the American people were not willing to go to war to stop it.
Pearl Harbor Japan strikes at the heart of the American Pacific Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Prior to December 1941, Japan pursued two simultaneous courses: try to get the oil embargo lifted on terms that would still let them take the territory they wanted, and to prepare for war.
Their greatest concern was the U.S. Pacific Fleet, based in Pearl Harbor so the Japanese navy planned to cripple the Pacific Fleet by a surprise attack. The U.S. had broken the Japanese diplomatic code and knew an attack was imminent. A warning had been sent from Washington, but it arrived too late.
The Attack! On December 7th 1941 the first wave of Japanese airplanes left 6 aircraft carriers and struck Pearl Harbor a few minutes before 8 AM local time. Over the course of two hours, they killed or wounded over 3,500 Americans and sank or badly damaged 18 ships - including all 8 battleships of the Pacific Fleet At least 1,177 lives were lost when the Battleship U.S.S. Arizona exploded and subsequently sank. Both USA and Canada formally declared war on Japan following attack on Pearl Harbour; Germany declares war on the US four days later Pearl Harbor Day Attack - YouTube
1944: War in the Pacific – The Defence of Hong Kong (Dec 8th, 1941) December 8, 1941 – over 50,000 Japanese troops invade Hong Kong, one day after they attacked Pearl Harbour 2000 Canadian troops were stationed there when the attack occurred the Canadians helped to fight off the Japanese for 17 days but eventually were forced to surrender. After Pearl Harbour, both USA and Canada interned Japanese-Americans and Japanese Canadians
Outcomes of Defence of HK 300 Canadians killed 493 Canadians wounded remaining soldiers became POW’s (prisoners of war ) 257 died in POW camps as a result of starvation, torture and outright murder
Canadian Prisoners of War in the Pacific Soldiers captured as POWs faced harsh treatment 1685 Canadians imprisoned in POW camps Some tortured Starvation diets Some forced into labour 267 died in POW camps
Canada in Europe Dec. 8, 1941: Japanese Invasion of Hong Kong August 19, 1942: The Dieppe Raid June 6, 1944: D-Day July 20, 1944: Normandy (D-Plus-44) September-November 1944: The Liberation of Belgium October-November 1944: The Battle of the Scheldt April 1945: The Liberation of the Northern Netherlands February-March 1945: The Rhineland Campaign
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Now that Germany had unconditionally surrendered (VE Day), the Allies could now put all effort to fighting Japan in the Pacific Memories of Pearl Harbour still resonated with Americans who wanted revenge United States led by Pres. Harry Truman decided to use atomic bomb on Japan Cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki chosen because of their military and industrial significance and concentrated population (maximize the damage) These are the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare
Fat Man and Little Boy On August 6th, 1945 a single B-29 Superfortress called the ‘Enola Gay’ by its crew took off and headed for Hiroshima At 8:15am the atomic bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” was dropped on Hiroshima Within seconds two thirds of the city was flattened and thousands were dead On August 11, a bomb called “Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki at 11:02 am At noon, August 15th, 1945 – Emperor Hirohito spoke directly to his people to tell them Japan had surrendered
Hiroshima BBC Hiroshima: Dropping the Bomb – YouTube See ‘National Geographic : Hiroshima Nuclear Apocalypse’
Why Did the Allies Win the Second World War? Complete material superiority – weapons etc. More soldiers Better Strategy Technology Morale Material and financial Wealth