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Chapter 9 The Era of Thomas Jefferson

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1 Chapter 9 The Era of Thomas Jefferson

2 9.1: Jefferson Takes Office
Election of 1800: 3 Strong Candidates Thomas Jefferson: Republican Aaron Burr: Republican John Adams: Federalists Votes are Tallied Jefferson received 73 Electoral Votes Burr received 73 Electoral Votes House of Representatives voted 36x to end the tie (Jefferson won)

3 Changing our Nation Jefferson had many ideas about changing our government. Wanted to limit the power of our gov’t Believed in Laissez faire Fired all tax collectors Cut # of U.S. diplomats Shrank the military Eliminated all federal taxes Kept most Federalists officeholders if they promised to be loyal and good citizens

4 Marbury vs. Madison Jefferson did not want to keep Judge William Marbury in office. Adams appointed him late to keep Federalists in power Jefferson ordered James Madison to stop all the work on the new appointments to office, causing Marbury to not become a Judge. Marbury sued Madison and Supreme Court ruled Judiciary Act unconstitutional but Marbury did not get to keep his office Ruling did establish Judicial Review

5 Can you remember? 1. Explain the outcome of the election of 1800.
2. Explain how Jefferson put his policies into action. 3. What was the importance of the Marbury vs. Madison case?

6 9.2: Louisiana Purchase

7 Moving to the West Many Americans were moving west toward the MS River. MS River was the main way of transportation, but Spain controlled the river down to New Orleans. U.S. organized the Pinckney Treaty to prevent Spain from closing down ports. 1801, the treaty was nullified when Spain gave New Orleans and the rest of Louisiana France. Fearing the French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, Jefferson tried to by New Orleans.

8 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to make an offer for New Orleans and West Florida territory. Napoleon at the time was fearing a war with Britain, and needed money to support his war effort. France offered New Orleans and the entire Louisiana Territory in return for $15 Million dollars (4 cents an acre) This purchase doubled the size of the nation.

9 Jefferson worries about the Purchase
Thomas Jefferson is originally ecstatic about the purchase of Louisiana, but he also is worried b/c Constitution doesn’t state the power to buy foreign land. Jefferson ultimately decides this could be labeled a treaty and it is approved quickly by Congress.

10 Planning an Expedition
Jefferson planned to spend $2,500 to fund an expedition to the west. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were chosen to lead the expedition. There were given specific goals: Make contact with Natives Make reports on geography, plants, animals, natural features Find a waterway to the Pacific Ocean from the MS River

11 Lewis and Clark head out West
Spring 1804: Lewis/Clark leave from St. Louis heading up the MO River. Expedition included 3 boats carrying supplies and 40 other men Oct. 1804, they had reached North Dakota (Mandan people) They were joined by French Canadian trader and his wife (Sacagawea): Shoshone Indian

12 Crossing the rugged Rockies
April 1805, the expedition reached the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mts. Both men were disappointed to not find a river to the Pacific Sacagawea helped supply the explorers with horses to cross the Rockies from her brother. Once through the Rockies, Lewis and Clark traveled down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean Lewis and Clark left in March 1806 and began their trip back to St. Louis.

13 Other expeditions to the West
Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of Louisiana. Traveled through the Rocky Mountains Discovered Pikes Peak (never made it to the top because the snow was too deep) Pike was arrested in New Mexico because the Spanish believed he was an American spy.

14 Can you remember? 1. Why was New Orleans important to the American people? 2. How did the United States obtain the Louisiana Territory? 3. Explain what happened during Lewis and Clark’s expedition.

15 9.3: A Time of Conflict

16 Struggle with the Barbary States
Americans were very dependent upon the sale of goods in Europe. After the American Revolution, Pirates began attacking American ships in the Mediterranean sea. Pirates came from 4 countries: Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, Tripoli. (Barbary States) Barbary states continuously attacked European and American ships Europeans stopped the attacks by paying a tribute (ransom) Jefferson stopped paying a tribute and sent warships to protect our American merchants. U.S. Philadelphia was captured by pirates near the Tripoli coast and its men were held as captives Stephen Decatur and other Americans raided the Tripoli harbor and burned the Philadelphia in order to keep the pirates from using the U.S. ship.

17 The 1st Marines 1805, American Marines were deployed in Africa
Traveled across the Sahara Desert to capture Tripoli

18 American Neutrality begins to crumble
1803, Great Britain and France again engaged in a war with the Americans staying neutral United States again teetered on both sides by trading with both nations Both Great Britain and France began to attack American ships trading with the other country Between France captured 500 American ships, Britain captured American ships Britain returned to the impressment tactic to influence the Americans

19 Jefferson’s Embargo Jefferson wanted to peacefully come to an agreement with both Great Britain and France Passed the Embargo Act: FORBID ANY FOREIGN TRADE (1807) Jefferson predicted this would stop the attacking of American ships Instead, Embargo Act caused the United States to suffer Exports fell from $109 Million--$25 Million American prices fell and hurt farmers and planters, many of American lost their jobs Americans were upset at the Embargo Act. Many turned to smuggling to get around the Embargo Act. Act was finally repealed in 1809 with the Nonintercourse Act: Americans could trade with all nations except Great Britain and France.

20 Battling Tecumseh As more and more Americans pushed into the western lands, more and more Native Americans were being forced off their lands. Many Natives suffered from the White diseases (measles, smallpox, influenza) Hunting grounds were cleared for farming Native American population dropped Shawnee leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh urged Natives to resist American advancement William Henry Harrison (Governor of IN Territory) sent soldiers to the Tippecanoe River Harrison’s men defeated the Natives Led to more Native uprisings

21 9.4 War of 1812

22 Advancing toward War James Madison has taken the Presidential office as of 1809. Americans developed a sense of Nationalism 2 leaders in the House of Representatives helped raise the support for war Henry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC) These men were called War Hawks Others against war believed war with Britain would harm our trade 1812, Britain says they will continue to impress sailors and help Natives in the West by providing weapons By June of 1812, Congress declares war on Britain

23 War of 1812 Britain was in a tough bind during the early days of the war. They were still in a war over in Europe (lacked enough men but they supplied Natives to help them out) United States was not prepared for war either: Jefferson weakened the American military when it was shrunk U.S. only had 16 warships and Army only had 7,000 soldiers Britain’s massive navy was able to blockade most U.S. ports USS Constitution vs. Guerriere: sea battle where the USS Constitution won and received its nickname “Old Ironsides”

24 War in the South and West
Most war supporters wanted to invade Canada but lack of confidence by the Generals forced them to retreat Battle of Put-In-Bay: 3 hour battle in American Commander, Oliver Hazard Perry’ ship was badly damaged but jumped on another ship to shout out American Victory. Andrew Jackson was the American commander in the South. Defeated the Creeks Indians in 1814 at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend

25 Final Battles August 1814, British marched to Washington, DC. As they did this, 1st lady, Dolley Madison, gathered up important papers and fled from the White House British set the White House on fire then moved on to Baltimore, MD September 13, 1814: Francis Scott Key watched as the British attacked Fort McHenry. Wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” to represent the battle 1814, Britain was tired of fighting. Ghent, Belgium Dec. 24, 1814 the Treaty of Ghent ended the war. News took several weeks to reach all the U.S. January of 1815, Andrew Jackson led the attack on New Orleans.

26 Protest and Peace Many people were against the war. Most called the war “Mr. Madison’s War” New Englanders were most upset over the war. It damaged American trade. Dec. 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, CT. discussed seceding from the United States. Before they could secede, the war ended and so did the Hartford Convention Many people called this the 2nd War for Independence.

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