29.1: Jefferson Takes Office Election of 1800: 3 Strong CandidatesThomas Jefferson: RepublicanAaron Burr: RepublicanJohn Adams: FederalistsVotes are TalliedJefferson received 73 Electoral VotesBurr received 73 Electoral VotesHouse of Representatives voted 36x to end the tie (Jefferson won)
3Changing our NationJefferson had many ideas about changing our government.Wanted to limit the power of our gov’tBelieved in Laissez faireFired all tax collectorsCut # of U.S. diplomatsShrank the militaryEliminated all federal taxesKept most Federalists officeholders if they promised to be loyal and good citizens
4Marbury vs. MadisonJefferson did not want to keep Judge William Marbury in office.Adams appointed him late to keep Federalists in powerJefferson ordered James Madison to stop all the work on the new appointments to office, causing Marbury to not become a Judge.Marbury sued Madison and Supreme Court ruled Judiciary Act unconstitutional but Marbury did not get to keep his officeRuling did establish Judicial Review
5Can you remember? 1. Explain the outcome of the election of 1800. 2. Explain how Jefferson put his policies into action.3. What was the importance of the Marbury vs. Madison case?
7Moving to the WestMany Americans were moving west toward the MS River.MS River was the main way of transportation, but Spain controlled the river down to New Orleans.U.S. organized the Pinckney Treaty to prevent Spain from closing down ports.1801, the treaty was nullified when Spain gave New Orleans and the rest of Louisiana France.Fearing the French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, Jefferson tried to by New Orleans.
8Louisiana PurchaseJefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to make an offer for New Orleans and West Florida territory.Napoleon at the time was fearing a war with Britain, and needed money to support his war effort. France offered New Orleans and the entire Louisiana Territory in return for $15 Million dollars (4 cents an acre)This purchase doubled the size of the nation.
9Jefferson worries about the Purchase Thomas Jefferson is originally ecstatic about the purchase of Louisiana, but he also is worried b/c Constitution doesn’t state the power to buy foreign land.Jefferson ultimately decides this could be labeled a treaty and it is approved quickly by Congress.
10Planning an Expedition Jefferson planned to spend $2,500 to fund an expedition to the west.Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were chosen to lead the expedition. There were given specific goals:Make contact with NativesMake reports on geography, plants, animals, natural featuresFind a waterway to the Pacific Ocean from the MS River
11Lewis and Clark head out West Spring 1804: Lewis/Clark leave from St. Louis heading up the MO River.Expedition included 3 boats carrying supplies and 40 other menOct. 1804, they had reached North Dakota (Mandan people)They were joined by French Canadian trader and his wife (Sacagawea): Shoshone Indian
12Crossing the rugged Rockies April 1805, the expedition reached the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mts.Both men were disappointed to not find a river to the PacificSacagawea helped supply the explorers with horses to cross the Rockies from her brother.Once through the Rockies, Lewis and Clark traveled down the Columbia River to the Pacific OceanLewis and Clark left in March 1806 and began their trip back to St. Louis.
13Other expeditions to the West Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of Louisiana.Traveled through the Rocky MountainsDiscovered Pikes Peak (never made it to the top because the snow was too deep)Pike was arrested in New Mexico because the Spanish believed he was an American spy.
14Can you remember?1. Why was New Orleans important to the American people?2. How did the United States obtain the Louisiana Territory?3. Explain what happened during Lewis and Clark’s expedition.
16Struggle with the Barbary States Americans were very dependent upon the sale of goods in Europe.After the American Revolution, Pirates began attacking American ships in the Mediterranean sea.Pirates came from 4 countries: Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, Tripoli. (Barbary States)Barbary states continuously attacked European and American shipsEuropeans stopped the attacks by paying a tribute (ransom)Jefferson stopped paying a tribute and sent warships to protect our American merchants.U.S. Philadelphia was captured by pirates near the Tripoli coast and its men were held as captivesStephen Decatur and other Americans raided the Tripoli harbor and burned the Philadelphia in order to keep the pirates from using the U.S. ship.
17The 1st Marines 1805, American Marines were deployed in Africa Traveled across the Sahara Desert to capture Tripoli
18American Neutrality begins to crumble 1803, Great Britain and France again engaged in a war with the Americans staying neutralUnited States again teetered on both sides by trading with both nationsBoth Great Britain and France began to attack American ships trading with the other countryBetween France captured 500 American ships, Britain captured American shipsBritain returned to the impressment tactic to influence the Americans
19Jefferson’s EmbargoJefferson wanted to peacefully come to an agreement with both Great Britain and FrancePassed the Embargo Act: FORBID ANY FOREIGN TRADE (1807)Jefferson predicted this would stop the attacking of American shipsInstead, Embargo Act caused the United States to sufferExports fell from $109 Million--$25 MillionAmerican prices fell and hurt farmers and planters, many of American lost their jobsAmericans were upset at the Embargo Act.Many turned to smuggling to get around the Embargo Act.Act was finally repealed in 1809 with the Nonintercourse Act: Americans could trade with all nations except Great Britain and France.
20Battling TecumsehAs more and more Americans pushed into the western lands, more and more Native Americans were being forced off their lands.Many Natives suffered from the White diseases (measles, smallpox, influenza)Hunting grounds were cleared for farmingNative American population droppedShawnee leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh urged Natives to resist American advancementWilliam Henry Harrison (Governor of IN Territory) sent soldiers to the Tippecanoe RiverHarrison’s men defeated the NativesLed to more Native uprisings
22Advancing toward WarJames Madison has taken the Presidential office as of 1809.Americans developed a sense of Nationalism2 leaders in the House of Representatives helped raise the support for warHenry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC) These men were called War HawksOthers against war believed war with Britain would harm our trade1812, Britain says they will continue to impress sailors and help Natives in the West by providing weaponsBy June of 1812, Congress declares war on Britain
23War of 1812Britain was in a tough bind during the early days of the war. They were still in a war over in Europe (lacked enough men but they supplied Natives to help them out)United States was not prepared for war either: Jefferson weakened the American military when it was shrunkU.S. only had 16 warships and Army only had 7,000 soldiersBritain’s massive navy was able to blockade most U.S. portsUSS Constitution vs. Guerriere: sea battle where the USS Constitution won and received its nickname “Old Ironsides”
24War in the South and West Most war supporters wanted to invade Canada but lack of confidence by the Generals forced them to retreatBattle of Put-In-Bay: 3 hour battle in American Commander, Oliver Hazard Perry’ ship was badly damaged but jumped on another ship to shout out American Victory.Andrew Jackson was the American commander in the South.Defeated the Creeks Indians in 1814 at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
25Final BattlesAugust 1814, British marched to Washington, DC. As they did this, 1st lady, Dolley Madison, gathered up important papers and fled from the White HouseBritish set the White House on fire then moved on to Baltimore, MDSeptember 13, 1814: Francis Scott Key watched as the British attacked Fort McHenry. Wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” to represent the battle1814, Britain was tired of fighting. Ghent, Belgium Dec. 24, 1814 the Treaty of Ghent ended the war. News took several weeks to reach all the U.S.January of 1815, Andrew Jackson led the attack on New Orleans.
26Protest and PeaceMany people were against the war. Most called the war “Mr. Madison’s War”New Englanders were most upset over the war. It damaged American trade.Dec. 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, CT. discussed seceding from the United States. Before they could secede, the war ended and so did the Hartford ConventionMany people called this the 2nd War for Independence.