Presentation on theme: " Monday - No school Tuesday - Review expectations - Go over exam results - The French Revolution This Week’s Agenda (1/6-10) Wednesday - Washington’s."— Presentation transcript:
Monday - No school Tuesday - Review expectations - Go over exam results - The French Revolution This Week’s Agenda (1/6-10) Wednesday - Washington’s Farewell Address Thursday - XYZ Affair - Embargo Act Friday - The War of 1812 - The Monroe Doctrine
Went over exam answers and breakdown so students understood how their grades were formulated (average of strands, based on mastery rubric) Showed “Crash Course” video (link on next slide) Tuesday
http://youtu.be/lTTvKwCylFY http://youtu.be/lTTvKwCylFY Crash Course in World History #29: The French Revolution
Sit where you want- NO BACK ROW! Evidence activity using old postcard Washington’s Farewell Address excerpts worksheet (The following slides can help give additional general info, but largely do not contain the actual text!) Wednesday
Washington departed the presidency and the nation's then capital city of Philadelphia in September 1796 with a characteristic sense of how to take dramatic advantage of the moment. As always, Washington was extremely sensitive to the importance of public appearance and he used his departure to publicize a major final statement of his political philosophy. WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS has long been recognized as a towering statement of American political purpose and until the 1970s was read annually in the U.S. Congress as part of the national recognition of the first President's birthday. Although the celebration of that day and the Farewell Address no longer receives such strenuous attention, Washington's final public performance deserves close attention. George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
The Farewell Address definitely embodies the core beliefs that Washington hoped would continue to guide the nation. Several hands produced the document itself. The opening paragraphs remain largely unchanged from the version drafted by James Madison in 1792, while most of the rest was penned by Alexander Hamilton, whom Washington directed to remove the bitterness from an intermediate draft that the president himself had written. Although the drawn out language of the Address follows Hamilton's style, there is little doubt that the core ideas were not only endorsed by Washington but were beliefs that he and Hamilton had developed together as the new nation's leading nationalists. George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
The Address opened by offering Washington's rationale for deciding to leave office and expressed mild regret at not having been able to step down after his first term. Unlike the end of his previous term, now Washington explained, "choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it." Washington was tired of the demands of public life, which had become particularly severe in his second term, and looked forward to returning to Mt. Vernon. Although he might have closed the Address at this point, Washington continued at some length to express what he hoped could serve as guiding principles for the young country. Most of all Washington stressed that the " NATIONAL UNION " formed the bedrock of "collective and individual happiness" for U.S. citizens. As he explained, "The name of AMERICAN, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of PATRIOTISM, more than any appellation derived from local distinctions." George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
Washington feared that local factors might be the source of petty differences that would destroy the nation. His defense of national unity lay not just in abstract ideals, but also in the pragmatic reality that union brought clear advantages to every region. Union promised "greater strength, greater resource, [and] proportionately greater security from danger" than any state or region could enjoy alone. He emphasized, "your UNION ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty." The remainder of the Address, delivered at CONGRESS HALL in Philadelphia, examined what Washington saw as the two major threats to the nation, one domestic and the other foreign, which in the mid-1790s increasingly seemed likely to combine. First, Washington warned of "the baneful effects of the SPIRIT OF PARTY." To Washington, POLITICAL PARTIES were a deep threat to the health of the nation for they allowed "a small but artful and enterprising minority" to "put in the place of the delegated will of the Nation, the will of a party." George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
Yet, it was the dangerous influence of foreign powers, judging from the amount of the Address that Washington devoted to it, where he predicted the greatest threat to the young United States. As European powers embarked on a long war, each hoping to draw the U.S. to its side, Washington admonished the country "to steer clear of permanent Alliances." Foreign nations, he explained, could not be trusted to do anything more than pursue their own interests when entering international treaties. Rather than expect "real favors from Nation to Nation," Washington called for extending foreign "commercial relations" that could be mutually beneficial, while maintaining "as little political connection as possible." Washington's commitment to NEUTRALITY was, in effect, an anti-French position since it overrode a 1778 treaty promising mutual support between France and the United States. George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
Washington's philosophy in his Farewell Address clearly expressed the experienced leader's sense that duty and interest must be combined in all human concerns whether on an individual level or in the collective action of the nation. This pragmatic sensibility shaped his character as well as his public decision-making. Washington understood that idealistic commitment to duty was not enough to sustain most men on a virtuous course. Instead, duty needed to be matched with a realistic assessment of self-interest in determining the best course for public action. George Washington’s Farewell Address (commentary from ushistory.org)
Get out your worksheet from yesterday- we’re going to go over it together after the bottom part is graded/ checked! The following slides give some help on understanding and interpreting Washington’s Farewell Address. Make changes on your worksheet as needed so you can study! Thursday (Regular Classes)
“In contemplating [thinking about] the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as a matter of serious concern, that any ground [reason]should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views [allowing local issues to dominate]. One of the expedients [ways] of party to acquire [gain] influence, within particular districts [areas], is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts [lie about what others think say/do]. You cannot shield yourselves too much against [you can’t be too careful] the jealousies and heart burnings [bad feelings] which spring [come] from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien [make foreign] to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection [common “brotherly love”] …. Interpreting Wash’s F.A.
“…I have already intimated to you [told/warned about] the danger of parties in the State [nation], with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations [local issues]. Let me now take a more comprehensive [complete/ overall] view, and warn you in the most solemn [serious] manner against the baneful [cursed] effects of the spirit of party [breaking into groups] generally ….”
“ The alternate domination of one faction [group] over another, sharpened by [made worse by] the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension [which comes naturally in losing], which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities [horrors], is itself a frightful despotism [tyranny]… The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline [lead to] the minds of men to seek security and repose [rest on] in the absolute power of an individual ….”
“Promote [encourage] then, as an object of primary [upmost] importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge [schools]. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened [people must be educated to make good decisions/ be good leaders]. …”
“As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit [lending $]. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly [little] as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace [peace is cheaper than war], but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it [sometimes quick action/ spending avoids bigger ones later], avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning [avoiding] occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge [get rid of] the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned [brought about], not ungenerously [unkindly] throwing upon posterity [future generations] the burden [issues] which we ourselves ought to bear. …”
“Observe good faith and justice [good relationships] towards all nations ; cultivate [encourage] peace and harmony with all. … The great rule of conduct [how we should act] for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations [trade], to have with them as little political connection [alliances] as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.”[but be true to those we’ve already allied with]
Background info: John Adams Brain Pop video (review revolution, introduce Quasi-War and Alien & Sedition Acts) Ograbme political cartoon “Foreign Affairs Issues and Events in the Early Republic” worksheet Thursday- Pre-AP
What is this cartoon depicting? Why is the turtle called Ograbme? Could this mean something else?
(answers) Q: What is this cartoon depicting? A: the turtle (“ograbme”) is keeping this man from being able to trade Q: Why is the turtle called Ograbme? Could this mean something else? A: embargo backwards is “ograbme”, so the embargo is stopping American trade with the British
John Adams Brain Pop video Begin “Foreign Affairs Issues and Events in the Early Republic” worksheet Friday- Regular Classes
Have Washington’s Farewell Address ready to grade/ discuss as class (6 th pd only- start with “Ograbme” from yesterday) Complete Foreign Issues chart (when done) to be turned in Tuesday Friday: Pre-AP
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