Presentation on theme: "By: Simon and Sonia. Role of Jordan One of the most ambiguous roles They were “secret friends” with Israel Hussein clearly understood the outcome."— Presentation transcript:
Role of Jordan One of the most ambiguous roles They were “secret friends” with Israel Hussein clearly understood the outcome of a direct confrontation with Israel King Hussein of Jordan reluctance to open a Jordanian front However, there was personal warning of Egyptian-Syrian assault from King Hussein of Jordan.
During the Actual War Jordanian army who arrived in the area without knowing exactly where the front line was. Jordan did send actual force to the Syrian side of the to show his concern for Arab solidarity, but he kept his own front with Israel completely quiet during the war. Thus Israel's Army and Air Force was able to concentrate on the direct Syrian and Egyptian threats.
Syria’s Role Egypt and Syria were the initial planners in the attack Syria also desired a return of the land lost in the Six-Day War. Hafiz al-Assad, the leader of Syria, had a different view. He had little interest in negotiation and felt the retaking of the Golan Heights would be a purely military option.
Arab Oil Crisis On October 16, 1973, OPEC announced a decision to raise the posted price of oil by 70%, to $5.11 a barrel. The following day, oil ministers agreed to the embargo, a cut in production by five percent, and continued to cut oil supply until their demands were met
Arab Oil Crisis October 19, US President Richard Nixon requested Congress $2.2 billion in emergency aid to Israel. In turn Libya announced it would embargo all oil shipments to the United States. Total embargo on oil deliveries to the United States as a “principal hostile country”. Though United States was the initial target of the embargo, it was later expanded to other regions. Price increases were also imposed. Arab oil producers had also linked the end of the embargo with successful US efforts to create peace in the Middle East
Egyptian Role pre-war Nasser died in 1970, to be replaced by his successor Anwar Sadat Egyptians had been demoralized and their economy was crumbling Sadat decided that the only option available was to go to war with Israel. Soviet Union declined to assist the Egyptians Egypt now in the favor of the US
Egyptian Role Main attack came from that of Egypt, whose army amassed more than 100,000 troops Israel had only 400 soldiers guarding the bridge which gave the Egyptians access to the Sinai The Egyptians attacked on Yom Kippur which was one of Israel’s holiest days It seemed to the Israeli’s that they would be beaten but they managed to hold off both fronts of the attacks which came through the Sinai and Golan Heights.
Egyptian Role Egyptian army was no match for the trained Israeli troops however, and was beaten back after reinforcements had arrived The Egyptians also attempted to aid Syria by counterattacking the Israeli’s when Syria was in trouble Egyptians were eventually also pushed back into their own country and the fighting went as far as 60 km away from Cairo.
Iraq’s Role Syrians and Egyptians had tried to request help from Iraq, however, Iraq refused to be a part of the initial offensive Iraq sided with Syria and Egypt and first sent aid when the initial offensive had started to fail. Iraq sent in their own division of around 30,000 men into the Golan Heights which attacked the southern flank of the Israeli army On the 23 rd of October when Syria announced their acceptance to the ceasefire, the Iraqi’s called their soldiers home who withdrew from the border of Syria and Israel.