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James Madison & Era of Good Feelings

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1 James Madison & Era of Good Feelings

2 The Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson persuaded Congress to pass an embargo as a means of “peaceable coercion” He hoped that U.S. refusal to export any goods or to buy any products from abroad would put sufficient economic pressure on GB and France to make them respect U.S. neutral rights

3 The Embargo Act of 1807 (cont.)
Unfortunately, the cutoff of trade did not hurt them enough to change their actions It proved disastrous to the U.S. economy Seamen were unemployed; merchants and farmers who depended on foreign sales were ruined The impact was hardest on New England An unintended consequence of the embargo was to encourage the transfer of capital into domestic manufacturing, a development Jefferson had initially opposed

4 Jefferson’s Second Term
Jefferson’s second term was affected by factionalism within his party and foreign difficulties as Britain and France were again at war (and violated U.S. neutral rights) When the policy of “peaceable coercion” initiated by Jefferson and followed by Madison, failed, Congress declared war on Britain (War of 1812)

5 James Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion”
The unpopularity of the embargo revived the Federalist Party 1808 election Federalist=Charles C. Pinckney Republican=James Madison

6 James Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” (cont.)
Federalist carried much of New England Madison carried most of other sections of the country

7 James Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” (cont.)
Just before Jefferson left office, Congress repealed the embargo and replaced it with the weaker Non-Intercourse Act This law worked no better then the previous one For the next year and half, President Madison tried variations on the them of peaceable coercion (Macon’s Bill No. 2) all failed to change British and French behavior

8 James Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” (cont.)
By 1810, Madison faced increasing pressure from Republican congressional representatives from the South and West Demanded a more aggressive policy toward Britain and France “war hawks” resented the insults to American honor Blamed the interference in trade for the economic recession hitting their home states

9 Tecumseh and the Prophet
The war hawks wanted the British to get out of Canada They believed that the British were arming and inciting the Indians on the American frontier

10 Tecumseh and the Prophet (cont.)
Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) were 2 Shawnees attempting to unite the tribes of Ohio and Indiana against white settlers Initially they had no connections with the British William Henry Harrison attacked the Prophet’s town and won the battle at Tippecanoe, Tecumseh did join forces with England

11 What should Congress do?
By 1812 congress faced a choice, should they declare war on England or not? You are a member of a House of Representatives. What do you think Congress should do? You have 20 minutes to do this

12 Congress Votes for War June 1, 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare war on England The vote reflected party and sectional splits Most of the “no” votes came from New England Federalists The majority of Republicans passed the declaration

13 Congress Votes for War (cont.)
Reasons U.S.A. declared war in 1812 Britain’s incitement of the Indians The belief that continuing British restrictions on U.S. shipping was causing the recession in the South and West Madison’s view that England intended to ruin America as a commercial rival

14 The War of 1812

15 The War of 1812 (cont.) On to Canada
In 1812, American attempts to conquer Canada failed The British took Detroit American victories: Oliver H. Perry’s victory on Lake Erie William Henry Harrison’s at the Battle of the Thames

16 The British Offensive In 1814, the British landed on the shores of Chesapeake Bay and marched to Washington Captured Washington and burned it After they failed to take Baltimore, they broke off the campaign

17 The Treaty of Ghent U.S. and British commissioners met at Ghent, Belgium Dec. 1814 The British demanded territory from the U.S.A. The U.S.A. refused British backed down

18 The Treaty of Ghent (cont.)
Dec. 24, 1814, they signed the treaty America was restored to prewar status quo Neither side gains or loses territory Fixes a boundary between the US and Canada Nothing was done about impressment, but the end of the war made that a dead issue

19 Battle of New Orleans Battle of New Orleans
Fought 2 weeks after the Treaty was signed U.S. had a resounding victory Had no bearing on the terms of the Treaty of Ghent Provided an uplifting ending for Americans Makes Andrew Jackson a war hero

20 The Hartford Convention
The unpopularity of the war in the Northwest contributed to the revival of the Federalists In the election of 1812, antiwar Republicans and Federalists supported DeWitt Clinton for president against Madison Madison won reelection (128 to 89) Clinton carried most of the Northeast

21 The Hartford Convention (cont.)
American military losses intensified Federalist discontent Fall of 1814 Group of Federalists convened at Hartford, CT Passed resolutions aimed at strengthening their region’s power within the Union

22 The Hartford Convention (cont.)
Their timing could not have been worse Coincided with the end of the war and news of Jackson’s victory in New Orleans Silenced Federalist criticism Public disapproval of the Hartford Convention led to the rapid demise of the Federalist Party

23 James Monroe In the election of 1816, James Monroe (the Republican nominee) scored an easy victory In 1820, Monroe won reelection with every electoral vote but one


25 The Awakening of American Nationalism
Madison’s Nationalism and the Era of Good Feelings, Era of Good Feelings was the name given to the postwar time period Heightened spirit of nationalism New political consensus Federalist party disappeared

26 Madison’s Nationalism and the Era of Good Feelings, 1817-1824 (cont.)
Republicans wanted to make the country more self-sufficient Enacted many measures that the Federalists had earlier supported Chartering of a new national bank Protective tariff (help domestic manufacturing) Sectional harmony started to break down because of the issue of slavery and its spread westward

27 Foreign Policy Under Monroe
Under the leadership of President James Monroe and his able secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, the U.S. achieved several foreign-policy successes

28 Foreign Policy Under Monroe (cont.)
Good relations with the British were cemented through agreements Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) British and U.S.A. agreed to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes British-American Convention (1818) Clarified the western border between Canada and the United States “as a line from the farthest northwest part of Lake of Woods to the 49th parallel and thence west to the Rocky Mountains.” 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty Spain ceded East Florida to the U.S.A. and renounced its claims to West Florida

29 The Monroe Doctrine December 1823 Mostly written by John Quincy Adams
Purpose was to discourage European powers from helping Spain regain her lost colonies in the Americas Also, reserving the right of the U.S. to expand further in the Western Hemisphere

30 The Monroe Doctrine (cont.)
The Monroe Doctrine stated: 1.) the U.S.A. would not become involved in strictly European affairs 2.) the American continents were not available for further European colonization 3.) the U.S. would look upon any attempt by European countries to regain lost colonies or to interfere in the Americans as an “unfriendly act.”

31 John Marshall and the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall wrote opinions that strengthened the power of the federal govt. at the expense of state sovereignty Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Forbade state interference with contracts McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Prohibited states from interfering with the exercise of federal powers

32 Conclusion The War of 1812 caused sectional divisions
Federalist denunciation of the war at the Hartford Convention hastened the demise of the party The remaining Republicans wanted to make America economically self-sufficient They passed many of the nationalist measures once advocated by Hamiltonian Federalist A new national bank; federally supported internal improvements; protective tariffs Even U.S. foreign policy, especially the Monroe Doctrine, reflected assertive nationalism

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