2Domestic PolicyDomestic policy, also known as public policy, presents decisions, laws and programs made by the government, which are directly related to all issues and activity within the country. Domestic policy is the set of laws and regulations that a government establishes within a nation's borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in world politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business, education, energy, health care, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare and personal rights and freedoms
3Foreign PolicyForeign Policy How a nation treats other nations is called foreign policy. It is a kind of blueprint for the way a nation deals with other nations of the world. Foreign policy involves economic, political and military issues. The way foreign policy is conducted is of major importance to the domestic and international concerns of a nation. The United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy. The interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. The president was given the task of dealing with foreign policy through the Constitution in Article II, Section 2. Early in the presidency of George Washington, the Cabinet position of Secretary of State was created. The secretary of state is the major adviser to the president about international relations.
4Foreign PolicyThere are four key goals of America’s foreign policy for dealing with other nations.1) National Security – this is the nation’s # 1 goal and all government policies are used to obtain this goal.2) International Trade – trade with other countries is vital for economic prosperity and to create markets for American products and jobs for our citizens.3) Promoting World Peace – promotes peace to ensure national security and trade.4) Promote Democracy Around the World – helps to protect basic human rights and encourages peace, which promotes our nation’s security.
5Foreign PolicyThe president and the White House assistants work with a large foreign-policy bureaucracy within the executive branch that includes: the State Department, the Department of Central Intelligence (CIA), and National Security Council. They help with foreign affairs and carry out presidential decisions.
6President – Foreign Policy 1) The president is the chief diplomat and commander in chief.
7Congress – Foreign Policy 2) Congress is given the power to declare war, prohibit certain military actions, and spend or withhold money for defense.
8Congress & PresidentThe President and Congress have several methods they use to influence other nations and carry out our American foreign policy: 1) Creating Treaties and Economic Agreements a) A treaty is a formal agreement between the governments of 2 or more countries. Example: One of the most important treaties we have is NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). It is a mutual defense agreement between the US, Canada, and nations of Europe. The Senate must approve a treaty by 2/3 votes.
9Congress & PresidentExample: One of the most important treaties we have is NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization).It is a mutual defense agreement between the US, Canada, and nations of Europe.The Senate must approve a treaty by 2/3 votes.
10No Nukes*Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) International agreement intended to prevent the spread of nuclear technology. The U.S., Britain, the Soviet Union, and 59 other countries signed it in The three major signatories agreed not to assist states lacking nuclear weapons to obtain or produce them; the nonnuclear signatories agreed not to attempt to obtain nuclear weapons in exchange for assistance in developing nuclear power for peaceful purposes. In 1995, when the treaty was due to expire, it was extended indefinitely by a consensus vote of 174 countries at the United Nations.
11President - Ambassadors 2) Appointing Ambassadorsa) An ambassador is an official representative of a country’s government.b) The president appoints about 150 ambassadors who must be approved by the Senate.c) We only send ambassadors to countries that we recognize with legal governments.
12Foreign Aid3) Foreign Aid – money, food, military assistance, or other supplies given to help other countries. The use of foreign aid has had its controversy. The controversy lies in the spending as to how much money should be spent abroad on foreign policy goals instead of here at home.?
13International Trade 4) International Trade a) The President can make agreements with other nations about which products may be traded and rules for such trading.b) Trade sanctions – punish another country by imposing trade barriers.c) Embargo – an agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them all from trading with a target nation.d) Tariffs – a tax on an imported good.e) Approve or deny membership into international trade groups such as –
14Trade Organizations• NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement – eventually will eliminate all barriers to trade among the US, Canada, and Mexico • WTO – World Trade Organization – Oversees trade among nations by negotiating trade rules and provides help to countries trying to develop their economies.
15Military Force5) Military Force – as commander in chief, the president may use military force to carry out some foreign policy.
16United Nations – Universal Declaration of Human Rights Soon after the United Nations was formed, its members agreed on a list of people’s basic rights. In December 1948, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration was made up of 30 separate articles, or statements, that define specific human rights that all people should have.
17Non-Governmental - Organizations/International Non-Governmental Organizations Non-governmental organization (NGO) are legally constituted organizations created by natural or legal people that operate independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations, and normally refers to organizations that are not a part of a government and are not conventional for-profit businesses. The number of NGOs operating in the United States is estimated at 1.5 million
18NGO’s – Red CrossThe American Red Cross exists to provide compassionate care to those in need. Our network of generous donors, volunteers and employees share a mission of preventing and relieving suffering, here at home and around the worldDisaster ReliefLife Giving BloodInternational ReliefHealth Care
19End of Course a. foreign policy b. administrative policy Which of the following policies below establishes a set of laws and regulations that a government develops within a nation's borders?a. foreign policyb. administrative policyc. legal policyd. domestic policy
20End of CourseWhich organization first formed in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, by five men who wanted to organize volunteers who could help wounded soldiers during wartime? A. The United Nations B. The World Health Organization C. The World Bank D. The Red Cross Society
21End of CourseWhich organization first formed in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, by five men who wanted to organize volunteers who could help wounded soldiers during wartime? A. The United Nations B. The World Health Organization C. The World Bank D. The Red Cross Society
22End of CourseWhat is one important global issue facing nations of the world? A. the need for more consumer goods in developed nations B. the falling price of energy worldwide C. the overabundance of food in developing nations D. the lack of food in developing nations
23End of CourseBecause nongovernmental organizations provide relief after a natural disaster, they usually depend on which of the following? A. volunteers and private donations B. The United Nations C. The European Union D. Presidents from many world nations
24End of CourseWhich of the following is true because the International Committee of the Red Cross is a nongovernmental organization? A. They serve people in need on both sides of the war. B. They only serve people in need for the government side they are on. C. They serve people in need once the president of one side of the war agrees for assistance. D. They only serve people in need in neutral countries.
25End of CourseWhy do nations depend on one another? A. They want to remain friendly with all nations. B. The United Nations requires that they do so. C. They want to protect their own industries. D. They need or want things from other nations.
26End of Course a. foreign policy b. administrative policy Which of the following policies below establishes a set of laws and regulations that a government develops within a nation's borders?a. foreign policyb. administrative policyc. legal policyd. domestic policy
27End of CourseWhich of the following terms below describes how one nation treats another nation?a. foreign policyb. domestic policyc. interventionismd. isolationism
28End of Course a. embargo b. trade sanctions c. foreign aid Which of the following terms below describes trade measures with an effort to punish another nation by imposing certain barriers?a. embargob. trade sanctionsc. foreign aidd. executive agreement
29End of CourseWhich of the following is the basic goal of United States foreign policy?a. national securityb. economic strengthc. creating alliesd. taking down enemies
30End of CourseWhich of the following statements describes why foreign aidcan be a controversial component as a tool of foreign policy?a. Foreign aid helps countries that American citizens do not care to help.b. Foreign aid is money being spent abroad and not at home.c. United States citizens would prefer to use military force instead of foreign aid to resolve the problem quicker.d. United States citizens believe it does not accomplish international peace and unity.
31End of CourseWhy is promoting democracy an important goal for our nation’s foreign policy?a. Nations that share our ideals share our goals and values.b. Democracy should be at the heart of every governmentsystem.c. Our enemies never share our democratic views.d. Democracy and foreign aid are interconnected in foreignpolicy.
32End of Course Why are embargoes an effective tool of foreign policy? a. It helps the citizens in the enemy nations.b. It is a peaceful solution to deal with enemy nations.c. It saves the United States money.d. It creates alliances.
33End of CourseWhich of the following is an example of a nongovernmental organization (NGO)? A. United States Army B. International Committee of the Red Cross C. European Union D. United Nations
34End of Course. Which of the following describes a nongovernmental organization? A. a group that works to solve problems around the world and is not connected to any government B. an organization that is formed between governments C. a group that works to solve problems in a country with the assistance of the government D. an organization that only deals with certain countries around the world
35End of CourseWhich of the following organizations describes a group of countries in Europe and North America that have signed a treaty agreeing to protect each other in case of an attack? A. United Nations B. United States Coalition C. North Atlantic Treaty Organization D. The European Union