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The 1 st 5 Presidents A New Nation is formed. 1. George Washington- 1789-1796 Precedents: Whiskey Rebellion: Jay’s Treaty:

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Presentation on theme: "The 1 st 5 Presidents A New Nation is formed. 1. George Washington- 1789-1796 Precedents: Whiskey Rebellion: Jay’s Treaty:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The 1 st 5 Presidents A New Nation is formed

2 1. George Washington Precedents: Whiskey Rebellion: Jay’s Treaty:

3 George Washington (John Adams- VP) 1.Set precedents- an act for others to follow (2 terms, cabinet, farewell address, etc.- became part of an unwritten constitution) 2.Cabinet: advisors to help the President make important decisions 3.Judiciary Act set up the Supreme Court The President’s Cabinet: Washington appointed four cabinet members: 1.Henry Knox- Secretary of War 2.Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State 3.Edmund Randolph- Attorney General 4.John Adams- Secretary of the Treasury

4 Hamilton and the National Debt Hamilton had to come up with a way to pay off nation’s debt (war, supplies, army) Whiskey Tax: excise tax put on the liquor Caused frontiersmen to rebel…Washington forced to march in and show power of executive gov’t Bonds- issue to pay debt South has little debt If the capital was moved south, they would agree to bonds 1790 bonds were issued and plans to move capital began

5 Strengthening the Economy 1.Establish the Bank of the United States (collect taxes, print money) 2.Give loans to farmers (help expand) 3.Establish tariffs (taxes on foreign goods) Arguments For National Bank:  Would build confidence in the new nation  Would raise $$  Would free up state $$ Arguments Against National Bank:  Constitution did not specifically say “build a bank” (Strict Constructionist)  Southern states paid debts already  People resented new taxes and tariffs

6 Foreign Policy- Neutrality The French Revolution (fighting for liberty) Jefferson (and most American’s) supported this after the French support Americans in their revolution France at war with Britain, Spain, and Holland  Washington issued a Declaration of Neutrality  Many wanted to continue trading with British AND French

7 American soldiers fought with French on their ships against the British 250 American ships were seized by the British British gave weapons to Native Americans in the West Washington sent John Jay to England to come to an agreement

8 Jay’s Treaty 1.Stop seizing ships 2.Most Favored Nation Status (w/ Britain) 3.Stop arming Natives French

9 Washington’s Farewell Address 1.Remain Neutral 2.No political parties (causes sectionalism)

10 Election of 1796 John Adams VS Thomas Jefferson

11 2. John Adams XYZ Affair: Alien & Sedition Acts: Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions:

12 John Adams (Federalist)- 2 nd President XYZ AFFAIR: o French angry over Jay’s Treaty o Continued to seize ships o Went to France to try to compromise o XYZ (French diplomats) tried to bribe American officials o Americans became outraged with the French o Adam’s and the Federalists took advantage of public opinion and began to build a Navy

13 Alien & Sedition Acts  Distrust with Foreigners in general  Needed to take votes away from Democratic-Republicans (who were seen as French-sympathizers)  Adams issued the Alien & Sedition Acts:  Increased requirements from 5 to 14 years for citizenship  Targeted French as anti-American; could be fined & jailed  Restricted newspapers from writing scandalous reports; could be fined & jailed for treason Is this CONSTITUTIONAL?!?!?

14 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions -Thomas Jefferson (VP) and James Madison wrote in secret -Resolutions came out rejecting the Alien and Sedition Acts -declared that states had right to refuse federal laws they feel are unjust and declare them unconstitutional (nullification) -Led to debate of Federal Power VS States Rights

15 3. Thomas Jefferson ( ) Presidential Goals: Strict Constructionist: Louisiana Purchase: Embargo Act:

16 Election of 1800 John Adams (federalist) Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr (dem.-reps.) Dead-lock between the Democratic-Republican candidates- went to House of Representatives Alexander Hamilton (Federalist) swayed votes to Jefferson

17 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)- 3 rd President Presidential Goals: -Simplify presidency -Eliminate excise tax -Reduce size of army -Reduce size of cabinet

18 UNTIL…..

19 Louisiana Purchase 1.Doubled size of U.S. 2.Unconstitutional 3.Gained control of Mississippi River

20 Chesapeake-Leopard “Affair” o June 21, Norfolk, VA o British captain fired on the USS Chesapeake o 3 dead, 18 wounded o Jefferson’s Response: Embargo Act

21 The EMBARGO Act (1807) The “OGRABME” Turtle

22 Jefferson responds with the Embargo Act I know what to do! If we don’t allow American ships to trade with anyone, then we can get attacked! President Thomas Jefferson hat to do! American Merchant True, but that’s not what I had in mind! I have a better idea! Let’s go to war!

23 4. James Madison ( ) Marbury v. Madison: American System: War of 1812:

24 Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established Judicial Review

25 Presidential Election of 1808

26 James Madison Supported the American System (created by Henry Clay): 1.Established a protective tariff 2.Reestablished the National Bank (weakened under Jefferson) 3.Sponsored the development of transportation systems, as well as other internal developments * The American System = Neutrality

27 The American System would help:  The North produce more manufactured goods  South and West raise most of the grains, meat, and cotton needed in the North NORTH = make goods SOUTH = RAISE CROPS

28 The Election of 1812

29 “War Hawks” Henry Clay (KY) John C. Calhoun (SC)

30 War of 1812… the second American Revolution Causes: 1.British impressment of US sailors 2.Conflict over trade 3.British STILL arming Native Americans Effects: 1.Foreign countries earn respect for US 2.NATIONALISM 3.US manufacturing increases 4.Native American resistance declines

31

32 Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814

33 4. James Monroe ( ) Era of Good Feelings: Monroe Doctrine:

34 James Monroe- (Democratic-Republican)- 5 th President

35 Era of Good Feelings

36 In The Monroe Doctrine was issued. It became the foundation of US foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere… American is CHARGED after winning the War of 1812…. Big Pants are on…

37 …an end to European colonization in the Western Hemisphere. …no intervention by Europe in existing nations in the Western hemisphere A declaration that European interference was “dangerous to our peace and safety” …a promise of noninterference by the United States in European affairs and European colonies


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