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JEFFERSON'S PRESIDENCY

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1 JEFFERSON'S PRESIDENCY
1. Jefferson: to 1809 VP: Aaron Burr The Revolution of 1800 peaceful transfer of power Jeffersonian Democracy 2. Marbury vs. Madison, 1803 Midnight appointments of Adams. Chief Justice John Marshall Judicial Review Power of Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional

2 3. Jefferson’s Achievements:
Secured westward expansion Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark 4. Defends our neutrality---freedom of the seas Barbary Pirate War—1805 France vs Britain Chesapeake Affair—1807 Embargo Act—1808 to 1809 Economic coercion 5. Hamilton vs. Burr

3 Strict Construction of Constitution
JEFFERSON AND CONTRADICTIONS Anti-War and Anti-Navy (Pacifist) Went to war with Barbary Pirates in North Africa Built the “mosquito fleet” of naval ships Anti-British/Pro-French Almost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans. Against slavery Owned 200 slaves Strict Construction of Constitution Used loose construction of Constitution over purchase of Louisiana territory Jefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in a “realistic world”.

4 THOMAS JEFFERSON Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College
A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses Father of the DOI Secretary of State under President Washington Vice President under Adams Owned 200 slaves

5 AARON BURR Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Born in Newark N.J.
Fought with the continental Army in the Revolutionary war. A practicing lawyer in New York City against Hamilton Vice President of the United States ( ). Kills Alexander Hamilton in a duel Involved in the Burr Conspiracy

6 ELECTION OF 1800 1. Election of 1800: The rise of political parties caused flaws in the electoral college Parties chose their candidates and electors would vote for them 2. Led to a tie between Jefferson and Burr----House of Representatives chose Jefferson. 3. To eliminate future problems 12th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie. Federalists Democratic Republicans Adams--Pres Jefferson---Pres Hamilton---VP Burr---VP----73

7 Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College 73-65.
ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College Problem: Jefferson & Burr received 73 votes each and both were Democratic-Republicans Therefore election decided by House of Representatives

8 Significance of Election of 1800
REVOLUTION OF 1800 John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican Significance of Election of 1800 peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another “revolutionary” achievement

9 FEDERALIST FINALE Adams was the last Federalist president
Jefferson kept most of Federalist policies Federalist diplomats had signed good treaties with England, Spain, France, and kept US out of war. Federalists preserved democratic gains, while fending off anarchy

10 Responsibility › Moderation
FEDERALIST FINALE Responsibility › Moderation Jefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dress Set precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himself Jefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural address Jefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives

11 Restraint Helps Revolution
FEDERALIST FINALE Restraint Helps Revolution Jefferson axed a few Federalist policies Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years Repealed hated excise tax Made efforts to eliminate debt

12 Restraint Helps Revolution
FEDERALIST FINALE Restraint Helps Revolution Yet Jefferson showed restraint by leaving most of Federalist program Did not attack tariff, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debt Helped 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster

13 Jeffersonian democracy
Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History. Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy. Believed National Government became too powerful during Adam’s Presidency Would try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power. KING GEORGE FEDERALISTS JEFFERSON Jeffersonian democracy

14 Jeffersonian democracy
Visualized an agrarian society Feared industrialization and its effects …. Farmers were the chosen class. Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s lives Against BUS but did not repeal it. Owned slaves but believed it was evil….Slavery would end but predicted it would divide U.S…Ultimate goal, Blacks would assimilate into American society Native Americans, co-existence a long range goal but would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficient…For that time, Indians and whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western lands Believed education the key to social mobility Jeffersonian democracy

15 MARBURY VS MADISON Although the Supreme Court, which had a Federalist majority, denied Marbury, also a Federalist, his commission (appointment to become a judge), the Court established a far more principle. THE SUPREME COURT INTERPRETS WHAT THE CONSTITUTION MEANS AND CAN DECLARE A LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL WHICH IS CALLED JUDICIAL REVIEW. THE CONSTITUTION IS THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IS OVER THE STATES.

16 Chief Justice John Marshall stated,
MARBURY VS MADISON Chief Justice John Marshall stated, “The Constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it. If the former part of the alternative be true, then a legislative acting contrary to the constitution is now law; if the latter part be true, then written constitutions are absurd attempts, on the part of the people to limit a power in its own nature illimitable. It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is If, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution and no such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they are both applicable”.

17 New Orleans Under My Wings
The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity. (Chicago Historical Society)

18 Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.
HAITIAN REVOLUTION Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon unable to put down this rebellion which he wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America…. Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.

19 LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1800, France acquired Spanish Louisiana & New Orleans Because of pressure from the west and national security threats, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France Offered Napoleon $10 million to buy New Orleans If sale fails, instructed to seek alliance with England

20 New Orleans Spanish Land 1800 Great Britain after the Revolution.
United States after War Spanish land after Revolution New Orleans

21 New Orleans French Land in 1801 Great Britain after the Revolution.
United States after War Spanish land New Orleans

22 LOUISIANA PURCHASE Since Napoleon was at war with Great Britain he offered entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Needed the money for his war with Great Britain Jefferson purchased Louisiana Territory for $15 million, about 3 cents an acre Doubled the size of the US Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war, no blood shed.

23 CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION
Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution? Jefferson used implied powers or loose construction to justify his decision “It was for the best interest of the nation. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind you; you may disavow me, and I must get out of the scrape as I can: I thought it my duty to risk myself for you.” Madison to Jefferson “Mr. President, you are only extending this republic over a larger area of land.”

24 CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION
Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution? Hamilton and Federalists were against this purchase Why? Population shift take Federalist power away in Congress Feared Jefferson’s vision of an “agrarian society” Jefferson referred to this as his “valley of democracy”

25 Expansion of the United States
Map 6 of 45

26 Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803
Map 7 of 45

27 LEWIS AND CLARK Spring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north Louisiana Corp of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark. Exploration yielded maps, knowledge of Indians, overland trail to Pacific President Jefferson wanted to find the Northwest Passage United States’ claim to the Pacific Northwest

28 Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark
SACAJAWEA Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark Her knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition. She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Many tribes had never seen white men before. Her presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful.

29

30 Map LP/3

31 FRANCE VS. GREAT BRITAIN
Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807): These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.  Orders-in-council British laws which led to the War of Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods. 

32 IMPRESSMENT Impressment An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy 1806: England closed ports under French control to foreign shipping (incl. US), seized US ships & impressed Americans. Napoleon ordered seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.

33 British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered
C H E S A P E A K E A F F A I R 1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed

34 EMBARGO ACT Jefferson’s response to the Chesapeake Affair was the Embargo Act of 1807…. Short of war, Jefferson attempted to defend our neutrality by stopping all American exports to the world.

35 It would have the reverse effect……
EMBARGO ACT Reasoning: Since England and France were at war with one another and traded for most of their natural resources with U.S., if we cut off our exports to them it would force them to respect our neutrality….THIS IS CALLED ECONOMIC COERCION. It would have the reverse effect…… The Embargo Act not only hurt France and Britain but it also hurt U.S. trade which was our economic survival as a nation. As a result, many Americans defied the law and began to smuggle goods from these countries as well as others. Hurt American businesses New Englander’s shift from trade to industry U.S. smuggled New England talked of secession….. Lasted 15 months, repealed in March of 1809

36 EMBARGO ACT American people were hostile towards Jefferson
Referred to the Embargo as “Dambargo, Mobrage, Go Bar Em”…. Would be replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France and Great Britain…… A Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out, “Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him , stretch forth his hands and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall be Conquerors!!!” “Our ships all in motion, Once whiten’d the ocean; They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo; Now doom’d to decay They are fallen a prey, To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.”

37 MADISON'S PRESIDENCY, 1809 TO 1817
1. Madison’s attempts at US Neutrality Causes of War of 1812 Impressment War Hawks Tecumseh Defend American neutrality 2nd War of Independence: vs. Great Britain Mr. Madison’s War---War of 1812 Misc. Information and lst’s War strategy Francis Scott Key = “National Anthem” British burn White House War heroes William Henry Harrison Andrew Jackson Battle of New Orleans--1815

38 3. Outcomes: War----a stalemate Treaty of Ghent Hartford Convention War’s Legacy US defends it’s neutrality Respect from Europe 4. President James Monroe, 1817 to 1825 Era of Good Feelings Monroe Doctrine

39 President James Madison
Born in Virginia, 1751 Enlisted in Continental Army but too small Attended Princeton University and became a lawyer. Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Secretary of State during Jefferson’s Presidency President, 1809 to 1817 Most known for defending US Neutrality during the War of 1812. President James Madison

40 WAR OF 1812 Non-Intercourse Act Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2. Macon’s Bill No Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

41 WAR OF 1812 Dupe of Napoleon August, 1810: in response, Napoleon (lying) announced decrees (stop impressing US ships) had been repealed November, 1810: Madison announces nonimportation against Britain Results in political ties with France Major foreign policy mistake

42 Tecumseh Tecumseh (Shawnee warrior) & the Prophet (brother) formed union of tribes east of Mississippi to fight white intrusion Supplied by the British led Indian cultural renewal 1809: General William H. Harrison appointed as governor of Indiana Territory by President Jefferson. President Jefferson instructed Harrison to convince Tecumseh to stop attacking American settlements.

43 Did not the Great Spirit make them for the use of his children?”
T E C U M S E H VS H A R R I S O N “Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them for the use of his children?” Tecumseh

44 Tecumseh Tecumseh reflected bitterly on the white man’s treatment of his people. “We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets (jewelry) and death”

45 William Henry Harrison
T E C U M S E H VS H A R R I S O N “One of those uncommon geniuses who spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established ordered of things. If it were not for the vicinity of the U.S., he would perhaps be the founder of an Empire that would rival in glory that of Mexico.” William Henry Harrison

46 War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.
The War of 1812 2nd War of Independence Mr. Madison’s War War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812. NEXT

47 John C. Calhoun South Carolina
MR. MADISON'S WAR War of 1812 War Hawks New members of Congress, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay want war why Great Britain….Why? U.S. must defend its neutrality Stop impressment British forts Tecumseh Desire for Canada and Florida Called 2nd War of Independence John C. Calhoun South Carolina Henry Clay Kentucky

48 Defend our self interest President James Madison
MR. MADISON'S WAR War of 1812 PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHT Defend our neutrality Freedom of the seas Defend our self interest Madison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US. Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral? President James Madison

49 “Mr. Madison’s War” Why Britain, not France?
Impressment: destroying US economy British forts Arming of Indians (Tecumseh) Desire for Canada No respect from British Was convinced by the War Hawks that this was a needed war.

50 “Mr. Madison’s War” June, 1812: War Hawks engineer declaration of war with England. Unfortunately, Congress was not aware that London repealed impressment policy 2 days prior to war New England opposed to war but Southern/western states supported the war US at war vs. most powerful nation, but US divided Poorly equipped US army initiated military action in by launching a 3-part invasion of Canada The British easily repulsed the Americans


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