Congress Ashlyn Nassar, Julie Bontems, Tess Bedell
I.Congress and the Persian Gulf, 1990-91 A.Congressional Breakdown 1.Parties 2.Votes B.Structural Aspects 1.Committees 2.Congressional Human Rights Caucus C.Powers Used and Unused 1.Legislative 2.Oversight 3.Power of the Purse Overview
II. Congress and the Bosnian Intervention,1994-95 A.Congressional Breakdown 1.Parties 2.Votes B.Structural Aspects 1.Committees 2.Congressional Human Rights Caucus C.Powers Used and Unused 1.Legislative 2.Oversight 3.Power of the Purse
Congressional Breakdown - Desert Shield 102nd United States Congress (1991-1993) ● Senate o 56 Democrats o 44 Republicans ● House of Representatives o 267 Democrats o 167 Republicans o 1 Independent
Congressional Voting - Desert Shield Authorization of Military Force Against Iraq ● Senate Joint Resolution 2 o Approved 52 to 47 o Democrats - 10 to 45 o Republicans - 42 to 2 ● House Joint Resolution 77 o Approved 250 to 183 o Democrats - 86 to 179 o Republicans - 164 to 3 o Independents - 0 to 1
Structural Aspects - Desert Shield Congressional Committees ●Hearings before the invasion ○ Senate Armed Services Committee ○ House Committee on Foreign Affairs ●Following the decision to invade ○ Funding and logistics Congressional Caucuses ● Congressional Human Rights Caucus
Congressional Powers - Desert Shield Legislative powers vs. Oversight: ● Bush sought congressional authorization for a war which the military was already prepared to fight ● House of Representatives passed a resolution supporting the President’s deployment of forces to defend Saudi Arabia ● The Senate passed a more limited resolution supporting the President’s actions in the U.N. and his demand for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait
Congressional Powers - Desert Shield Power of the Purse: ● First formal congressional action of the Gulf War: A continuing resolution that appropriated just over $2 billion for Desert Shield ● $61.1 billion overall, but was fought with only $1 billion in specific appropriations ● Congress authorized the use of force in January 1991, but did not appropriate funds for Desert Storm until April 1991; in the meantime, the entire Gulf War was waged and won
Congressional Breakdown - Joint Endeavor 104th United States Congress (1995-1997) ● Senate o 47 Democrats o 53 Republicans ● House of Representatives o 204 Democrats o 230 Republicans o 1 Independent
Congressional Voting - Joint Endeavor Bosnia and Herzegovina Self Defense Act of 1995 ● Senate Bill 21 o Passed 69 to 29 o Democrats - 21 to 24 o Republicans - 48 to 5 ● House Vote on Senate Bill 21 o Passed 298 to 128 o Democrats - 93 to 103 o Republicans - 204 to 25 o Independents - 1 to 0
Congressional Voting - Joint Endeavor Authorization of Troop Deployment in Bosnia ● Senate Joint Resolution 44 o Passed 69 to 30 o Democrats - 45 to 1 o Republicans - 24 to 29 ● House Resolution 302 o Passed 287 to 141 o Democrats - 65 to 130 o Republicans - 221 to 11 o Independents - 1 to 0
Structural Aspects - Joint Endeavor Committees ●Senate Committee on Armed Services ○ Chairman Sam Nunn 1994 ○ Strom Thurmond 1996 Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe ●Special agency created by Congress 1976 ●Consists of 9 representatives and 9 senators, and 3 executive agency members ●Hearing on humanitarian issue in Bosnia
Congressional Powers - Joint Endeavor Legislative powers: Clinton veto ● Both houses passed the measure to end the United States part in the embargo by two-thirds majorities. ● The Senate majority leader, Bob Dole agreed about the volatility of the situation ● The Senate minority leader, Tom Daschle, thought there was enough support to sustain the veto, but added that it was "a very close call," ● Clinton warned that unilaterally ending the United States role in the embargo would damage mutual security agreements with allies.
Congressional Powers - Joint Endeavor Oversight and War Powers Resolution: ● President Clinton kept the bombing campaign in Kosovo going for more than two weeks after the 60-day deadline had passed.bombing campaign in Kosovo ● What about the War Powers Resolution? ● The War Powers Resolution specifically says that such funding does not constitute authorization. ● Challenged by a member of Congress but the court found the issue was a “non-justiciable” political question
Conclusions ●Political Parties and Voting: foreign policy approval divides along party lines ●Structure: Leaders in Congress and the President ●Powers: Congress elected to use certain powers depending on perception of the issue at hand
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