Presentation on theme: "Angela Brown. Describe how Jefferson both reduced and expanded the power of the national government. Understand the Supreme Court’s power to review."— Presentation transcript:
Describe how Jefferson both reduced and expanded the power of the national government. Understand the Supreme Court’s power to review laws. Identify important foreign policies of the Jefferson administration.
Bellringer: Under what circumstances might reversing one’s opinion by a sign of flexibility and strength? When might sticking to an opinion be a sign of weakness? Key Terms Agenda Bureaucracy Marbury v. Madison Judicial review Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark expedition embargo
Jefferson had a straightforward agenda, or list of things that he wanted to accomplish upon entering office. His goal was to reduce the influence of the national government in the lives of Americans. Jefferson reversed much of what the Federalists had done. He refused to deliver speeches to Congress, claiming it was too much like the act of a king. He asked to be addressed simply as “Mr. President” resolving a question that had troubled Congress for years.
He reduced the amount of taxes paid. He cut the size of the Federal bureaucracy – the departments and workers that make up the federal government. He slashed the size of the army from 12,000 soldiers to 3,000. He did not intend to destroy the government or undo all the acts of the federalists. He let the Bank of the United States continue to function knowing that its 20-year term would end in 1811.
Jefferson’s program made him an extremely popular President during his first term. In 1804, when he easily won reelection, he even received the electoral votes of Massachusetts, a state dominated by Federalists.
Jefferson’s greatest rivals were his ambitious Vice President, Aaron Burr, and Alexander Hamilton, now a lawyer in New York. In the summer of 1804, Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. With one shot, Burr removed the leader of the Federalists and wrecked his own political future. Although he was never tried, and even continued to preside over the Senate after the duel, Burr was never again a serious challenge to Jefferson.
The Constitution had not fully explained the organization or the role of the judicial branch. With the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress filled in the missing details. The act created a national court system with three circuit courts and thirteen district courts, all headed by the Supreme Court. It also stated the Supreme Court would settle differences between state and federal laws.
This act increased the number of Supreme Court justices and increased the number of federal judges. Outgoing members of Congress, along with President Adams, were trying to limit Jefferson’s opportunity to appoint judges to the Supreme Court and leave behind a powerful group of Federalist Judges whose terms were made for life. Adams filled the new judicial posts just before leaving office. These last-minute appointments, known as the Midnight judges angered Jefferson, who believed that he had a right to appoint judges from his own party.
One of Adams’s judicial appointees and a long-time Federalist had been serving as Secretary of State… Marshall became Chief Justice (the leading judge) on Jan. 31, 1801. He held that post for 34 years, until his death in 1835. Marshall helped establish many important principles of constitutional law. He also helped build the prestige and authority of the Supreme Court in such historic cases as Marbury v. Madison.
Just before he left office, President Adams had appointed William Marbury as justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Secretary of State James Madison, under orders from President Jefferson, never delivered the official papers. Marbury sued Madison, demanding that the Supreme Court order him to let him take his office. According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Court had the power to give such an order.
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Marbury, declaring that it was against the Constitution for the Supreme Court to give an order to the executive branch. Marshall declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional – the first time a federal court had been so bold. This was a victory for the Jefferson Admin and the Supreme Court. passed by Congress for constitutionality.
It established the power of Judicial Review which enables federal courts to review state laws, court decisions and laws. Judicial review is not clearly stated anywhere in the Constitution but it remains a vital power of the judicial branch today.
As a strict constructionist, Jefferson opposed the development of a strong central government. In issues concerning American expansion west of the Appalachians, Jefferson and his supporters used the power and money of the national government as boldly as the Federalists ever dared.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established a process by which territories as lands in the West were called, could become states. The Jeffersonians sped the development of the frontier – which now extended only as far west as the Mississippi – through a new federal land policy. Under the land Act of 1800 Americans were able to buy land in small parcels and on credit. Federal land offices appeared across the West, making easier the transfer of land from government to its citizens.
American farmers in the West depended on the Mississippi River to transport their crops to foreign markets. When the French ruler Napoleon took over much of the Spanish land in the West, he gained control of the mouth of the Mississippi at New Orleans. The French used this control to extract large sums on money from American traders who had no choice but to travel the Mississippi.
Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy the city of New Orleans in 1803. Congress instructed Monroe along with the American minister in Paris, Robert Livingston, that they could pay up to $10 million for the land. Napoleon did have ambitions to create a new French Empire in the America’s. When his attempt to quell a rebellion on the French island of Haiti failed he quickly changed his mind.
Napoleon refused to sell New Orleans to the United States but offered instead to sell ALL of the French claims known as Louisiana. Monroe and Livingston offered Napoleon $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase hoping Congress and the President would support their decision. When Jefferson heard of the agreement with the French, he was troubled. The Constitution did not mention the purchase of foreign lands.
He was also wary of spending large amounts of public money. Jefferson overcame his doubts and urged Congress to approve the sale. The purchase dramatically increased both the national debt and the size of the U.S.
Congress agreed to finance Jefferson’s call for an expedition to explore the purchased land. Jefferson chose his private secretary, Meriwether Lewis, to lead the expedition. Lewis chose William Clark as his companion officer. Beginning in 1804, their goals were to search for river routes to the western ocean, make contact with the Native Americans living in the territory, and gather information about the region’s natural resources.
They hired a French-Canadian fur trapper and his wife Sacajawea, a Shoshone Indian as interpreters. They reached the Pacific Ocean in late 1805 and returned east by September 1806. The 2 year, 4 month expedition filled in details about the land to the west. More info was gathered by Zebulon Pike between 1806 and 1807,
Jay’s Treaty, which maintained peace with Britain, expired in 1805. The Europeans were back at war. French warships began harassing American ships trading with Britain, and the British ships interfered with American ships trading with France. The British also kidnapped American sailors to serve in their navy. In 1807 a British ship, the Leopard, attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake, inflicted 21 casualties, and boarded it to search for deserters for His Majesty’s navy.
Jefferson was outraged by these acts and believed they should not go unpunished. Yet he rejected the use of force, in part because of the small size of the U.S. navy. At his insistence, Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807 which outlawed almost all trade with foreign countries. An embargo is a restriction of trade. Britain’s trade had grown too strong to be affected as had the French.
New Englanders who made their living through trade especially hated the embargo. They smuggled goods to Great Britain in defiance of the President and Congress. Jefferson had no alternative but to use his small navy and federal agents to enforce the law to preserve government authority. The embargo ruined Jefferson’s second term. Many Americans despised the government interference in the economy. Federalist exploited the anger and enjoyed a revival.
Jefferson saw his Secretary of State, James Madison, elected President in 1808. Then he retired to his home Monticello as an unpopular figure.
Describe the changes Jefferson tried to make in the relationship between government and the people. Create an outline of Jefferson’s major accomplishments as President. How do each of the events of 1803 conflict with Jefferson’s principles? How was the enforcement of the Embargo Act of 1807 like the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion?