Presentation on theme: "Using the Neutrality to War document, answer the following questions. You may work together but everyone must have their own answers written down. YES."— Presentation transcript:
Using the Neutrality to War document, answer the following questions. You may work together but everyone must have their own answers written down. YES you have to write the questions! 1. Who was Gerald Nye, what did he do? 2. Define Belligerent, Munitions, Embargo, & Appeasement? 3. What were the Neutrality Acts? 4. What is the Quarantine Speech? 5. Who were the 3 anonymous belligerents Roosevelt was talking about? 6. What is Cash and Carry? 7. What is the first peace time draft? 8. What was the Destroyer Base Deal? 9. What is the Lend Lease Act?
WWII Vocab Munitions materials used in war..i.e. weapons, ammunition, Belligerents Countries involved in war Embargo-partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country, in order to isolate it Appeasement-to yield or concede to the belligerent demands of in a conciliatory effort, sometimes at the expense right or justice.
Who was Gerald Nye, what did he do? He headed the committee that investigated the role played by U.S. businessmen (munitions manufactures) in the American entrance into World War I. An outspoken isolationist, he fathered the Neutrality Act.
What were the Neutrality Acts? As series of legislations that attempted to keep the U.S. out of Europe’s war. (ISOLATIONISM) 1. Forbade trade or sell of munitions to belligerents 2. Forbade U.S. citizens to travel on belligerents vessels 3. Banded loans to belligerents 4. Cash & Carry 5. Destroyer Base Deal 6. Lend Lease Neutrality Acts attempted to keep the US out of war
What is the Quarantine Speech? In response to Japanese action in China, Pres. Roosevelt delivers a speech in which he calls for peace-loving nations to act together to "quarantine" (embargo) AGGRESSIVES to protect the world from the "disease" of war.
Who were the 3 anonymous aggressors Roosevelt was talking about? JAPAN Germany Italy
What is Cash and Carry allowed the sale of materiel to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation.
What is the first peace time draft? Selective Service Act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards.
What was the Destroyer Base Deal U.S. exchanges WWI destroyers for British Colonies in the western hemisphere Newfoundland Newfoundland Bermuda Bermuda Antigua Antigua St. Lucia St. Lucia Jamaica Jamaica Trinidad Trinidad British Guiana British Guiana
What is Lend Lease? The legislation gave President Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers.
Atlantic Charter Churchill and FDR agree to defend democracy, free trade and economic advancement no territorial gains sought by the United States or the United Kingdom; territorial adjustments must be in accord with wishes of the people; the right to self-determination of peoples; trade barriers lowered; global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare; freedom from want and fear; freedom of the seas; disarmament of aggressor nations, postwar common disarmament
Nazism, Communism, Fascism, or Militarism? State is the custodian of everything on behalf of the people. State Ownership Classless, everyone is equal. thinks globally community that holds the production and the major resources State controls everything…peopl e work for the betterment of the state. State Control State is above all. Nobody more important than the state. Think locally (the nation) ideology that tries to bring together radical and authoritarian nationalism. State controls everything…peopl e work for the betterment of the state. Ethnic and Racial superiority. State Control State is above all. Nobody more important than the state. Think locally (the nation) ideology that tries to bring together radical and authoritarian nationalism. Military should dominate all aspects of political, economical, and social society. A nation is only as strong as its military. Expansion is vital for growth and survival.
ItalyGermanyJapanRussia Fascism Mussolini Nazism Hitler Militarism Tojo Communism Stalin Totalitarianism = political system where the state, usually under the control of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life.
The Rise of Fascism in Italy Fascism is a totalitarian form of government which: Glorifies the state Has one leader and one party All aspects of society are controlled by the government No opposition or protests are tolerated Propaganda and censorship are widely practiced If nation is Great, then the people are great. Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922 and helped found the political ideology of fascism. He sided with the Axis powers in 1940. The truth is that men are tired of liberty
Mussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italy’s problems rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire Came to power in 1922 and was appointed to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy
Mussolini set up a Fascist Party Treaty of Versailles treated Italy unfairly… Italy will expand by force (military) Expanded into Africa for resources Signed an Alliance with Hitler in 1936
What is Communism Belief Rich get Richer Poor get Poorer Goal To eliminate social classes Make everything fair for everyone Problem True communism never achieved Greed!
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (1929) World Depression Russia and surrounding countries in a great famine. “Great Purge” - wave of repression against Stalin’s enemies. Murder 10x more people than Hitler. Expansion: expanding communism into western Europe. Non-Aggression Pact with Germany, Invaded Poland. 1939
Rise of the Nazi Party Nazi is Fascism with 1 BIG difference! RACE Each race has a characteristic. Aryan Race is the Master Race. JEWS the lowest race Corrupted other inferior races. Wanted to take over the world Parasites that betrayed Germany Stole work from Aryans.
Japan Militarism Military should dominate all aspects of political, economical, and social society. A nation is only as strong as its military. Expansion is vital for growth and survival. glorification of war Constant preparation for war.
Japanese Expansionism 1919-Post WWI Treaty of Versailles unfair. 1920s Japan seeking expansion needs natural resources 1931- Japan invades Manchuria 1932-1936 political turmoil 1936 Joins Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy to end Communism 1937 Japan began to attack China (Sino-Japanese War). 1937 US issues Oil embargo(80% dependent) In 1938, war between Japan and the Soviet Union. China supported by US and Soviets Union, wanted to discuss peace. Roosevelt sided w/ China Nov 1941- Japan orders attack if peace fails
THE DAY OF INFAMY December 7, 1941 PEARL HARBOR
Causes… Japan’s aggressive expansion tactics Japan’s aggressive expansion tactics The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from China and Indochina The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from China and Indochina Japan thought that attacking the U.S. would provide them an easy win, and a territory with abundant land and resources to rule once they were victorious. Japan thought that attacking the U.S. would provide them an easy win, and a territory with abundant land and resources to rule once they were victorious. The U.S. oil embargo against Japan was hurting Japan’s economy The U.S. oil embargo against Japan was hurting Japan’s economy
Warfare Used During Attack Japan -8-8-8-81 Fighter Planes -1-1-1-135 Dive Bombers -1-1-1-104 Horizontal Bombers -4-4-4-40 Torpedo Planes -A-A-A-At least 5 Midget Submarines
Warfare (continued) United States United States - 108 Fighter Planes (59 not available for flight) - 35 Army Bombers (27 not available for flight) - 993 Army/Navy Antiaircraft Guns
During the Attack * Japan would control the entire Pacific by December 8
Casualties Japan -L-L-L-Less then 100 men -2-2-2-29 planes -5-5-5-5 midget submarines United States -2-2-2-2,335 servicemen killed, 68 civilians killed, 1,178 wounded -1-1-1-188 planes -1-1-1-18 ships (8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, 3 destroyers, 4 other vessels)
Outcome of Pearl Harbor Japan dealt a seemingly crippling blow to the U.S. Pacific fleet. Down to 25-30 % Japan began their quest for a Pacific empire The U.S. finally was forced to join World War II (“The Sleeping Giant was awakened”) The U.S. & Great Britain declare war on Japan (Dec. 8, 1941) Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S. (Dec. 11, 1941)
December 8, 1941 FDR Speech “Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - A date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
Effects of Pearl Harbor Attack unified the division between anti/pro war supporters. 85% of Fleet destroyed Except Air craft carriers & submarines Led to Japanese interment camps. Huge mobilization effort Men enlist to fight Women take jobs Minorities step up in employment and in War.
AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE Make a chart with a section for each of he following concepts Mobilization Cooperation Women African-Americans Hispanics Japanese-Americans Other
Building an Army Selective Service Act 1940 First Peace Time Draft Highly opposed until Germany defeated France (Spring 1941) 16 Million Americans served in the armed forces.
A PRODUCTION MIRACLE Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry Automobile plants produced tanks, planes, boats, Jeeps Produced 1/3 of military equipment during the war.
Converting the Economy Cost Plus Contracts- Govt. Cost Plus Contracts- Govt. agrees to pay pvt. Companies for production + %. Reconstruction Finance Corp. Reconstruction Finance Corp. Made loans to pvt. Companies to make munitions. War Production Board War Production Board supervised and regulated the production and sale of material essential to the logistics of World War II.
African-Americans Work Great Migration Resumes. Southern Blacks move to North for jobs Protest unfair hiring practices FDR issues Executive Order 8802 (no discrimination for employment based on race) Received more jobs and more equality (prelude to civil rights movement)
African Americans War Segregated Army Double V campaign Abroad (enemy) Home (racism) Tuskegee Airmen Fighter squadron 761st Tank Battalion Battle of the Bulge Desegregated Bases 1943
Bracero Program A Mexican laborer allowed into the United States for a limited time as a seasonal agricultural worker. Zoot Suit Riots- 1943 L.A. Young Mexican- Americans vs US Sailors Fought in the war
Japanese Americans Japanese-Americans loyalty questioned after Pearl Harbor Forced to sell homes and relocate to internment camps Korematsu v. USA Internment camps constitutional based on military urgency not on race 442nd combat regiment Fought in the war
Native Americans in WWII 1 out of 3 Native Americans served in WWII Many of them became part of the group, the Navajo Code-Talkers The Code-Talkers used their own languages to communicate messages across enemy lines Messages intercepted but not translated.