Presentation on theme: "Napoleon I had no use for Louisiana after the revolution in revolution in Haiti. After failing to recapture it, he decided, just in case he lost his war."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon I had no use for Louisiana after the revolution in revolution in Haiti. After failing to recapture it, he decided, just in case he lost his war in Europe, to sell Louisiana to America and use the money for his campaigns. This was a great opportunity and Jefferson wasn’t about to let it go by! So he jumped the gun and bought the Louisiana Purchase.
Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane) The Louisiana Purchase was one of the largest land deals in History. 828,000 sq miles. The United States paid approximately $15 million dollars. 11.25 million for the territory and the rest was to pay off the dept to the France. Nearly doubled the United States. They also made a treaty called Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris April 30, 1803. The treaty was signed by Robert Livingston and James Monroe.
Louisiana Purchase: Independence and nationalism More room (elbow-space) Contributed to Jefferson’s view of what the country should be like– an agrarian society They no longer had to worry about Napoleon controlling the Louisiana Territory (war).
Passed by Congress in 1807: Forbade the export of ALL goods from the US Jefferson reasoned that if America voluntarily cut off its exports, offending powers would be forced to agree to respect its rights-- "peaceful coercion" – If it worked it would vindicate rights of neutral nations and direct new way to deal with foreign affairs – if failed, Jefferson feared that the republic would perish, subjugated to the European powers or sucked into their war
Effects of the Embargo American economy staggered under its Effect: – hurt commerce of New England (which they were actually trying to protect) ---- New England seethed with talk of succession Jefferson was causing war on fellow citizens rather than on offending powers In 1808 enormous illicit trade along Canadian border, bands of armed Americans on loaded rafts overawed or federal agents Embargo had the effect of reviving the moribund Federalist Party (unity disappearing) – New converts hurled their Nullification of the Embargo into "Virginia Lordings" in Washington – 1804 discredited Federalist had only polled 14 electoral votes out of 176;1809 rose to 47 out of 175
The Embargo Act Embargo act was repealed in March 1, 1809 3 days before Jefferson retired Reasons Embargo Collapsed: – Jefferson underestimated determination of the British and the belligerents on Americas trade – At the time the US stopped trade British Isle were blessed with grain crops – Latin American republics opened ports for compensating commerce – The French continued to seize American ships (supplies) – New England plucked new prosperity – Yankees reopened old factories and erected new ones
Effects of the Embargo Act New England plucked new prosperity – Yankees reopened old factories and erected new ones– independence from British goods This also allowed to take a step towards self- manufacturing. After the Embargo: Non Intercourse Act opened all trade with nations except Britain and France
Why did it start? The War of 1812 started for many reasons! One of them are: – British’s seizure of American ships – Impressments of American sailors into British army – restriction of trade between the United States and France. – Tension from the Napoleon Wars (1792-1815) – French Revolution Wars – Jays Treaty (Hated it) How did it start? James Madison asked congress to declare war on June 1812.
How did it ended? By the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 – The treaty took weeks to make. – That’s why it was a little late because the Battle of New Orleans was fought after the treaty. – It also contributed to the end of the Federalist Party. (Hartforth Convention) – Was a draw (no one actually won) Although it was a good war toward America because when American went in to war they didn’t go in as a nation, but they came out with great unity. This contributed to the nationhood.
The Supreme Court and Nationalism Supreme Court greatly expanded its powers, prestige, and independence under the John Marshall. Marshall increased the power of the Supreme Court as a branch of the federal government, emphasized the role of the judiciary in the states, and reinforced the national supremacy of the federal government. Assertion of judicial nationalism
Marshall’s Supreme Court Cases McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland imposed a tax on all banks not chartered by the state, including the National Bank. When they refused to pay, Maryland filed suit. Established the constitutionality of the National Bank Established supremacy of federal government over state government. “the power to tax involves the power to destroy” Dartmouth College v. Woodward State legislators had tried to alter the Dartmouth College charter's terms regarding the continuance of the board of trustees. The decision was important in its application to business charters, protecting businesses and corporations from excessive government regulation. Argued by Daniel Webster- graduate of Dartmouth
Marshall’s Supreme Court Cases Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) New York authorized a monopoly on steamboat operation in its waters, an action upheld by a state chancery court, but the Supreme Court ruled that competing steamboat operators were protected by the terms of a federal license to engage in trade along a coast. Established that states could not interfere with the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.- commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution Marbury v. Madison William Marbury, a midnight appointee of President Adams to a justice of the peace position in DC, brought suit against Secretary of State, James Madison, seeking delivery of his commission. The Supreme Court has limited jurisdiction, the limits of which are set by the Constitution, and which congress may not change--making the Judiciary Act of 1801 unconstitutional. Established the Supreme Court as the final authority in Constitutional matters (including the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional- Judicial Review)
Marshall’s Supreme Court Decisions “As a result of these decisions, it would become increasingly difficult in the future to argue that the union was a creation of the states, that states could exert an independent check on federal government authority, or that Congress's powers were limited to those specifically conferred by the Constitution.” In a sense, led to a greater sense of unity in the Nation--nationalism
Adams-Onis Treaty What was the Adams-Onis Treaty? A Treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819. What did the Treaty do? It gave Florida to the U.S. and set a definite boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (Mexico). The boundary line was set on the Sabine river in present- day Texas. In turn, the U.S. let go of several claims it had in Present Day Texas and areas that were wrongly promised to U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase.
Adams-Onis Treaty What is the Significance of the Treaty? It settled border disputes and rising tensions between the U.S. and New Spain. Because of this, it is considered a triumph of American Diplomacy. It had the additional effect of establishing U.S. claims through the rocky mountains and out to the pacific Ocean. In all, this helped us gain more independence.
Additional Facts It was also known as the “Transcontinental Treaty” or “The Florida Purchase”
The US President, James Monroe, stated the doctrine. Foreign policy (NOT LAW) of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823—invoked later by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan and others. – It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention The doctrine was introduced by President Monroe when he was enraged at the actions being executed around him--- Americas were not to be further colonized by European countries, and that the US would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The doctrine put forward that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence, for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nations. It would have been nearly impossible for Monroe to envision that its intent and impact would persist with only minor variations for almost two centuries. Its primary objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control (thus ensuring US national security). Also this openly told Europeans to STAY AWAY! !
This was the thing that gave America the most Independence out of every other one. Had nationalism and great spirit of patriotism. This would keep America a neutral country and not be thought as an ally every time British went in to war. And this also made sure that the Britain wouldn’t come in or intervene when we had trouble going on too. Also this led up to Manifest Destiny.