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The Jeffersonian Era American Studies.

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1 The Jeffersonian Era American Studies

2 The Silent Revolution The Election of 1800
Elections were different then, before the firm establishment of political parties There were no party primaries then, so there were not clear cut candidates There were three main candidates: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Aaron Burr

3 The Silent Revolution The Election of 1800
Burr and Jefferson tied in the electoral college, with Adams finishing third The election then went to the House of Representatives Alexander Hamilton dominated the House, and he also had a hatred for Burr Hamilton ensured that Jefferson won the election and became the third president of the US


5 The Silent Revolution At a time in world history when changes in political power were often accompanied by bloody revolutions, the election of 1800 is significant because the main power of the US government, the presidency, was shifted from the Federalist party to the Republican party with no violence and/or protests involved Jefferson realized this significance and in his inaugural address he stated that “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”

6 Jefferson’s Approach Though Jefferson was the father of the Republican party, he was aware of many successes of the Federalist party They brought financial stability to the nation They had made the federal government a respectable power Jefferson had been terrified at the late abuses of the Federalist party, such as the Alien and Sedition Acts

7 Jefferson’s Approach Jefferson quickly eased the worries of many Federalists when he made it clear that he wanted to maintain the financial programs of Hamilton Jefferson was a believer in limited government however, and he immediately downsized the military, cut government jobs, repealed many taxes (namely the whiskey), and cut the national debt



10 The Louisiana Purchase
Under Napoleon France had won back much of its American empire However, by 1803 the leader had lost interest in the Americas and made it known to America that he would be willing to sell the lands Jefferson sent envoys to France with orders to offer up to $10 million for New Orleans and the Gulf Coast, the French replied that for $15 million they could have all French territories


12 The Louisiana Purchase
This was an incredible offer for it would more than double the US  the envoys quickly accepted the offer in the name of Jefferson Jefferson, as the leader of the Republicans, now faced a tough dilemma… As a Republican he was committed to strict construction of the Constitution Nowhere in the Constitution was it stated that the president could purchase lands



15 The Louisiana Purchase
Recognizing what was best for the country Jefferson moved forward and sent the land purchase to Congress for approval, which it quickly was He faced much criticism from the Federalists for his hypocritical treatment of the purchase

16 The Louisiana Purchase
The purchase itself more than doubled the size of the US It contained the territories that would later make up more than 14 states It gave the US the critical trading port of New Orleans It gave the US complete control over the Mississippi River

17 The Louisiana Purchase
Before the purchase had even occurred Jefferson had commissioned a scientific expedition into the western frontiers The Lewis and Clark Expedition The explorers were military scouts, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark They developed accurate land maps that would be used for later explorations They strengthened US claims to the Oregon territories They improved relationships with many Native American tribes

18 The Marshall Court John Marshall Was actually a cousin of Jefferson
Had been appointed the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the final months of Adams presidency He would serve as Chief Justice for 34 years His decisions would greatly strengthen the power of the Supreme Court and also increase the power of the federal government

19 Midnight Appointments…
In efforts to strengthen Federalist power in the courts, just before his time as president was finished Adams appointed many Federalists to district courts Jefferson refused to deliver the appointments, stating that they were unjust One of the judges, William Marbury, sued for his appointment In 1803 the case made it to the Supreme Court

20 Marbury v. Madison Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that Marbury had a right to receive his appointment according to the Judiciary Act of 1789… HOWEVER… Marshall ruled that the Judiciary Act itself was unconstitutional so the whole situation was moot… this case established the policy of judicial review – the act of the Supreme Court having the right to determine whether actions of Congress and the President are legal according to the Constitution

21 Impeaching the Judges…
Since justices were appointed for life terms, in efforts to break the Federalist grip on the Courts Jefferson attempted to have some Federalist justices impeached by Congress (the Republicans had a majority in both houses) Congress was not able to find any wrong-doing by the justices brought up for impeachment, and never again would a president or Congress try to remove justices through impeachment

22 The Tripoli Pirates Though Jefferson was a staunch pacifist, the pirates of Tripoli were waging a naval war against American shipping Jefferson reluctantly sent a fleet of American battleships to north Africa to attack Tripoli The American navy was successful in its efforts and defeated the Barbary Pirates (Tripoli)

23 The Election of 1804 Riding a wave of growing nationalism (indeed helped by the Louisiana Purchase) Jefferson was reelected as president in the election of 1804 He won in a major landslide, winning 162 of the 176 electoral votes (ran against Charles Pinkney – 14 electoral votes)

24 Failing Federalists and Conspiracies
With Jefferson’s reelection, his successful Louisiana Purchase, and his victory against Tripoli gaining prestige for the Republicans, the Federalist Party was severely weakened A group of Federalist conspirators convinced Burr to attempt a secession from the Union in order to weaken the Republican party New York and the New England colonies would secede Burr’s conspiracy was discovered but he escaped conviction when witnesses to the conspiracy could not be found…

25 Burr and Hamilton Burr’s conspiracy was mainly defeated by Hamilton
A major component of the plan was Burr winning the election for governor of New York, but Hamilton used his political power to ensure Burr’s defeat Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel where Hamilton was shot and killed by Burr Hamilton had long been the leader of the Federalists, and with him no longer around the party was soon lost

26 Growing Nationalism For a long period of time, and because of debt assumption and Jay’s Treaty, the western people of the US did not support the federal government  however, after Pinckney’s Treaty, Jefferson’s election, and the Louisiana Purchase the westerners of the US began to strongly support the American government Many of these areas became the most nationalistic areas of the country

27 Near Wars with Europe In 1803 France and England began another war
Neither could gain victory because England controlled the seas but France controlled the land In efforts to win the war both began seizing any American ships that attempted to trade with European nations From over 6,000 American sailors were impressed by the two European powers

28 Chesapeake-Leopold In 1807 The Leopold, a British ship, overtook the American merchant ship The Chesapeake only 10 miles from the coast of Virginia It ordered the capture of all of the cargo and six of the US sailors When the American captain resisted The Chesapeake was attacked and sunk Americans demanded Jefferson declare war



31 Answer? Embargo? Despite most Americans calling for war with either nation, Jefferson knew that the US was not powerful enough to defend itself Feeling that the two nations depended on trade with US Jefferson had the Embargo Act of 1807 passed This stated that the US would no longer trade with any country, no matter who they were


33 Embargo of 1807 Reasons For Reasons Against


35 Effects of the Embargo Act
The main person that Embargo Act was meant to protect, New England merchants, were hurt the most American industry was crippled Even farmers in the west and south were crippled As it had during the colonial times, smuggling soon became very common The Embargo Act remained until Jefferson left office in 1809, when it was then quickly repealed


37 Election of 1808 Though the Embargo Act was incredibly unpopular, Jefferson remained a beloved figure in American society Jefferson endorsed his close friend and author of the Constitution, James Madison, for president Madison defeated a number of candidates and became the 4th president

38 A New Embargo The Embargo Act was replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act It stated that the US could trade with any foreign nation other than that of Britain and France Though the Non-Intercourse Act was meant to revitalize American trade, England and France were the US’s biggest trade partners and American merchants continued to suffer

39 Another Embargo… In another attempt to help American trade Macon’s Bill No. 2 was passed by Congress It stated that if either France or England would agree to quit seizing American ships that the US would begin trade with that nation but continue to embargo the other Napoleon quickly made promises to Madison that France would quit seizing American ships The US began trade with France, but Napoleon secretly ordered seizures of American shipping to continue

40 WAR OF 1812 Non-Intercourse Act Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2. Macon’s Bill No Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

41 The Verge of War Madison was duped by Napoleon in more than one way (Macon’s Bill)… England was furious over America’s siding with France through Macon’s Bill and the English saw this as essential alliance between France and the US Soon the US and England would be at war as well

42 American Views Towards England
Americans were furious over the widespread impressment of American sailors by the British Nearly all of the 6,000 US sailors impressed from were done so by the British England still maintained a number of forts in the American frontier, forts they used to supply Native Americans with guns to attack Americans (see next slide)

43 Tippecanoe The Shawnee tribes of the frontier, led by the mystic Prophet and his brother Tecumseh, attempted to form an Indian alliance General William Henry Harrison (US) defeated the Native Alliance at the Battle of Tippecanoe Though the English had only offered limited support to the Natives, Americans were infuriated at the British…

44 The Rise of Jackson Another American leader was gaining fame in the South during the Native American wars In 1814 Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend This victory would open up all the lands of the Southeast US for peaceful settlement Jackson would become a national hero after the battle Blame was once again placed on the British (and Spanish), with accusations being made that the European powers were giving aid to the Natives

45 War Hawks Some of the greatest senators in American history were elected to Congress in 1810 These young senators were known as War Hawks for their eagerness for war with England Among these War Hawks were Henry Clay and John Calhoun They argued very effectively that a successful war with England would gain the US more lands for settlement, crush Native American resistance, and gain the US international respect

46 A Divided Nation at War War was officially declared in 1812, though by a very close vote in both houses of Congress This close vote showed how divided the country was over the war Republicans wanted the war while Federalists opposed it Republicans wanted a free sea for trade and more lands to spread their agricultural economy Federalists feared any more growth in Republican power and also sympathized with the British Federalists would make constant efforts to sabotage American efforts throughout the war…

47 The War of 1812 The war began badly for the US
The “Three Pronged Invasion of Canada” was a complete disaster The British defeated the US and gained control of the Great Lakes More attempts at invading Canada were beaten back Most Americans did not care about the war and these defeats only worsened the situation

48 The War of 1812 The Turning Points of the War
Oliver Hazard Perry was able to defeat the British on the Great Lakes General William Henry Harrison defeated the British at the Battle of the Thames Thomas MacDonough won a crushing victory on Lake Champlain in 1814 These victories led to great increases in moral for the American efforts and turned many people to support the war effort

49 D.C. Burned… In 1814 British troops were able to land in the Chesapeake region and capture the nation’s capital, Washington DC Many prominent landmarks, such as the White House, were burned Nearby, the Americans won a near impossible victory at Fort McHenry and the British invasion was repulsed This is where Francis Scott Key would write the Star Spangled Banner

50 The Battle of New Orleans
With a British invasion of New Orleans highly likely General Andrew Jackson was sent to defend the city He would be able to prepare the city before the British attacked The British literally walked into a deathtrap and Jackson crushed the English force The battle would make Jackson a national hero

51 The End of the War Britain offered to end the war a couple of weeks after New Orleans, but it was mere coincidence The peace envoy had no clue about the crushing defeat the British had experienced at New Orleans The Americans simply figured that England wanted no more of the “powerful” Americans

52 The Treaty of Ghent The British arrived for the peace talks with massive demands of new territories… BUT after learning of the British defeat at New Orleans they quickly backtracked The Treaty of Ghent essentially returned Canada and the US to how they were before the war The British did agree to abandon all forts in the frontier regions

53 The End of the Federalists
The Hartford Convention In late 1814 it seemed eminent that New Orleans would be lost to the British Hoping to use the defeat as a bargaining piece the Federalists of the New England states met at Hartford and created a list of demands for Congress Repayment for lost profits from the Embargoes A new policy for determining embargoes Some even spoke of secession

54 The End of the Federalists
The delegates arrived at Washington DC the same time as the stunning news of the American victory at New Orleans The Federalists were shamed for their disloyalty to America The Battle of New Orleans had led to an incredible upsurge in nationalism, and the Federalists had simply had horrible timing

55 Effects of the War of 1812 Though the US might not have gained any lands or major concessions from the war, the War of 1812 did have a number of significant effects on the young nation… The US gained incredible respect from foreign nations for fighting the world’s greatest power, England, to two stalemates There was an incredible growth any nationalistic feelings across the US, especially in the west The idea that the future of the US lay in westward expansion The death of the Federalist party

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