Presentation on theme: "Jefferson to War of 1812 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson became president The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Twelfth Amendment."— Presentation transcript:
Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson became president The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution – Pres and VP run as a ticket "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
Election of 1800 Referred to as constituting “another revolution” – the party in power stepped down after losing the election Changes made – Size of the military reduced – Number of Federal employees increased – Amount of national debt reduced – Alien and Sedition Acts repealed
TIMELINE The Revolution of 1800 Judiciary Act of 1801 Marbury vs Madison, 1803 Impeachment of Samuel Chase,1804 Napoleon induced Spain to cede Louisiana, 1800 1802 France withdrew the right of deposit at New Orleans, (Pinckney Treaty of 1795) Meriwether Lewis & William Clark (1804-1806) Zebulon M. Pike 1805-1807 Blue: Louisiana Purchase Black: Judicial Review Red: Foreign Policies Essex Junto, 1804 Burr Conspiracy, 1806 Jefferson re- elected in 1804 (d. Charles Pinckney 162 - 14) Yazoo Land Controversy, 1804 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (June 21, 1807) Embargo Act, 1807 Non- Intercourse Act of 1809 Election of 1808
Judiciary Act of 1801 Federalists created 16 new judgeships and other judicial offices Law passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. Adams continued on his last day in office – "midnight judges." Jeffersonians charged Federalists were packing judicial branch for life. Act repealed 1802. TIME LINE
John Marshall Appointed as Chief Justice during last days of Adams' term Most important Chief Justice in U.S. history Served for about 34 years Made Federalist decisions long after Federalist party was dead.
Marbury vs Madison, 1803 William Marbury sued for the delivery of his commission that was being held up by the new secretary of state Madison. Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments – Case was dismissed, avoiding a direct political showdown between the Supreme Court and the Executive branch. Judicial Review – Marshall ruled that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional by giving the Court the right to enforce appointments – Marshall gave Supreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional – Contrasted with the Kentucky Resolutions where Jefferson had claimed states had that right (due to compact theory). – Power of Supreme Court greatly enhanced TIME LINE
Impeachment of Samuel Chase Jefferson threatens the Supreme Court – Jeffersonians outraged that judicial review buttressed Federalist Supreme Court. – Jefferson supported the removal of Federalist justice Samuel Chase – Early 1804, impeachment charges against Chase were voted by the House of Reps. – Senate failed to convict Chase in early 1805 – No attempts to reshape the Court by impeachment Grounds for impeachment would be based on criminal charges, not political partisanship Reassured the independence of the judiciary and the separation of powers. TIME LINE
Essex Junto Burr had run for President in 1796 and 1800 (became Jefferson’s vice president in 1801) Essex Junto: A small group of Federalist extremists plotted for New England's secession – Highly sectional Federalist stronghold – Threatened by Jefferson dominance & the Louisiana Purchase. Plotters courted Hamilton to run for governor of NY in 1804 and then lead the secessionist movement. Plotters then courted Vice President Burr. Hamilton led opposition to Burr’s NY gubernatorial campaign and Burr was defeated Hamilton then exposed the plot at a meeting of leading Federalists in Albany TIME LINE
Burr Conspiracy and Yazoo Land Controversy, 1804 In 1806, Burr attempted to separate the western part of the U.S. from the eastern part – After, unite it with Spanish territory west of the Louisiana Territory and perhaps in northern Mexico. Burr was initially supported by James Wilkinson, military governor of upper Louisiana, who later exposed the plot to Jefferson – Burr arrested in 1806 in Natchez and tried next year at Richmond, VA. – John Marshall dropped the case when two witnesses for gov't couldn't be found. Jefferson re-elected in 1804 (d. Charles Pinckney 162 – 14) TIME LINE
Napoleonic Wars British controlled the seas but France controlled the European continent. British began seizing American ships – Berlin Decree, 1806 American ships trading with Britain would be confiscated by France. – “Order in council" (Beginning in 1806; continued in 1807) Closed ports under French continental control to foreign shipping Neutrals (e.g. U.S.) might enter Napoleonic ports only if they first stopped in Britain. American ships that didn’t stop at Britain prior to entering the Continent would be confiscated. – Milan Decree, 1807 – Napoleon’s retaliation to "order in council" Any neutral ship entering a British port, or submitting to a British warship at sea, would be confiscated by if it attempted to enter a Continental port. Many American shippers took chances by continuing trade & gaining handsome profits. British Impressment (Impressment = forcible enlistment of sailors) – 6,000 Americans impressed from 1808-1811; Many died or were killed in service. TIME LINE
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair British commander of the royal frigate, H.M.S. Leopard, demanded surrender of four alleged deserters on the U.S.S. Chesapeake; American captain refused. British fired at the Chesapeake: 3 dead; 18 wounded; Chesapeake limped back to port. Jefferson, nevertheless, used the incident to incite calls for U.S. action. Forbade British ships to dock at American ports. Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen. TIME LINE
TOUSSAINT L’ OUVERTURE LEADS A SLAVE REVOLT AGAINST THE FRENCH NAPOLEON SENDS 20,000 TROOPS YELLOW FEVER AND L’OUVERTURE’S ARMY DEFEAT THE FRENCH “DAMN SUGAR, DAMN COFFEE, DAMN COLONIES”
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to – Give the United States control over the Mississippi River – acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops – hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generations – to prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IN 1800 NAPOLEON GAINS CONTROL OF NEW ORLEANS FROM SPAIN. WITHDRAWS THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN1802
JEFFERSON WANTS NEW ORLEANS JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS. THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION
MORE… IF THE FRENCH REFUSE MONROE IS TO FORM AN ALLIANCE WITH BRITAIN AGAINST FRANCE.
NAPOLEON OFFERS TO SELL ALL OF LOUISIANA PRICE $15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR ALL THE LAND BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI & THE ROCKY MTS. LIVINGSTON SIGNS THE DEAL APRIL 30, 1803 828,000 SQ MILES (3CENTS AN ACRE.
JEFFERSON’S PRINCIPLES GET IN THE WAY. JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST. MUST USE IMPLIED POWERS TO JUSTIFY THE DEAL. FEDERALIST ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION.
Louisiana Purchase cont’ Bought the land from Napoleon $15 million As a strict constructionist, the Constitution did not authorize the President to negotiate treaties incorporating huge new expanses of land into the union.
Louisiana Yet Again Jefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to the Senate while privately admitting the purchase as unconstitutional. Senate promptly ratified the treaty Land-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the purchase Federalist opposition (typical of "loyal opposition" up to the present) Ironically argued for strict construction: President did not have power to purchase LA. Ironically claimed LA would cost too much especially when balancing budget was a goal Real reason: worried that western lands would be loyal to Jefferson’s Republicans..
Embargo Act 1807 Forbade export of all goods from U.S. – Jefferson got Congress to hastily pass the act – Reasoned that a U.S. embargo would force Britain & France to respect its rights. – Loose construction of the Constitution Congress' power to "regulate commerce" meant it could stop exports. Undermined Jefferson’s states’ rights philosophy Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy Non Intercourse Act (ended Embargo Act) – Formally reopened trade with all nations of the world except France and Britain – Remained U.S. policy until War of 1812.
JEFFERSON VS THE PASHA OF TRIPOLI JEFFERSON OPPOSED LARGE ARMIES AND NAVIES A THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENT AND EXPENSIVE
MORE… 2500 MEN IN THE ARMY BUILT “JEFFS” TO DEFEND THE COAST. SMALL BOATS W 1 GUN.
1801 PASHA DECLARES WAR ON U.S. HOW WOULD JEFFERSON RESPOND? SENDS MARINES TO THE “SHORES OF TRIPOLI” 1805 WAR ENDS - WE PAY $60,000 IN RANSOM. BUT SHOWED WE WOULD FIGHT.
JEFFERSON’S NAVAL POLICY LEADS TO WEAKNESS. JEFFS ARE TOO SMALL TO BE USEFUL WHEN THE WAR OF 1812 COMES WE MUST BUILD REAL SHIPS TO CONTEND WITH THE BRITISH.
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IS JEFFERSON’S GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT AS PRESIDENT.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEAL DOUBLED THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES. GAINED A RICH RIVER VALLEY SECURED NEW ORLEANS AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. JEFFERSON CALLED IT “THE VALLEY OF DEMOCRACY.”
LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION 1804- 1806 ASCEND THE MISSOURI RIVER AND CROSS TO THE PACIFIC SURVEY THE AREA AND ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH THE INDIANS
Jefferson’s Legacy Expansion became prime goal Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic government Total defeat of Federalists by 1816 Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging European war – War of 1812 not until late in Madison’s first term.
Election of 1808 impacted by the Embargo Act issue Republican, James Madison, defeated Charles Pinckney Federalists made significant gains in Congress (although still in minority) and gained control of several state legislatures.
THE WAR HAWKS WIN A DECLARATION OF WAR IT TAKE A MAJORITY VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES HOUSE OF REPS VOTES 79 TO 49 FOR WAR SENATE VOTE 19 TO 13 NEW ENGLAND SOLIDLY OPPOSE WAR. Macon's Bill No. 2
REASONS FOR WAR Battle of Tippecanoe STATED REASONS: FREE TRADE AND SAILOR’S RIGHTS REAL REASON: “ON TO CANADA!” VIEWED AS EASY. ONLY 500,000 CANADIANS. 6 MILLION AMERICANS BRITISH ARE BUSY WITH NAPOLEON
BRITAIN REPEALS ORDERS IN COUNCIL MAIN STATED REASON IS REMOVED BEFORE DECLARATION NEW ENGLAND WILL LEND MONEY TO BRITAIN DURING THE WAR. GOVERNORS REFUSE TO ALLOW STATE MILITIAS TO LEAVE THEIR STATES.
OUR WORST FOUGHT WAR NATION IS DIVIDED FROM THE START NO BURNING ANGER AGAINST BRITAIN MADISON HOPED WE WOULD RALLY AROUND THE FLAG. NEVER FIELDED AN ARMY LARGER THAN 7000 MEN
WE ARE UNPREPARED EFFECTS OF THE EMBARGO & JEFFERSON’S DEFENSE POLICY. BANK OF UNITED STATES EXPIRED 1811, NO FINANCIAL BASE. ARMY IS ILL TRAINED AND SCATTERED MILITIA POORLY TRAIN & LED.
INVASION OF CANADA SHOULD HAVE FOCUSED ON MONTREAL, BUT LAUNCHED 3 PRONGED INVASION. GEN. HULL ATTACKED FROM DETROIT, BUT QUICKLY SURRENDERED 2 ND PRONG FAILED WHEN N.Y. MILITIA REFUSED TO CROSS THE NIAGARA RIVER. 3 RD PRONG UP LAKE CHAMPLAIN FAILED WHEN MILITIA REFUSED TO CROSS BORDER.
CANADIANS FOUGHT HARD LED BY GEN. BROCK COUNTER ATTACKED & DROVE DEEP INTO NEW YORK. WAR TO TAKE CANADA BECAME WAR TO SAVE NEW YORK.
TWO THEORY ABOUT THE CAUSES OF THE WAR 1. RESULTED FROM MARITIME GRIEVANCES AGAINST BRITAIN HISTORIAN: HENRY ADAMS THEORY #2 WAR CAUSED BY AMERICAN GREED FOR LAND. HISTORIAN: FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER
ARGUMENTS: IF IT WAS ABOUT SEAMAN’S RIGHT WHY DID NEW ENGLAND OPPOSE WAR? WHY DID THE WEST & SOUTH STRONGLY SUPPORT THE WAR?
WAR ON THE LAKES 1813OLIVER HAZARD PERRY WINS CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE “WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY & THEY ARE OURS!” CUTS OFF BRITISH OUTPOST & THEY WITHDRAW.
BATTLE OF THE THAMES OCT. 1813 WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON DEFEATS BRITISH & INDIAN FORCE. MEANWHILE BACK IN EUROPE…
NAPOLEON IS DEFEATED 1814 IMPRISONED ON ELBA BRITISH DIVERT TROOPS TO AMERICA.
BRITISH LAUNCH NEW ATTACK ON NEW YORK VIA LAKE CHAMPLAIN AMERICAN COMMAND THOMAS MACDONOUGH LAST LINE OF DEFENSE DEFEATS BRITISH FLEET AT PLATTSBURG SEPT 11, 1814 SAVES NEW YORK.
BRITISH BURNING WASHINGTON D.C. 1814 4OOO BRITISH LANDED ON CHESAPEAKE BAY. 6000 U.S. DEFENDERS QUICKLY DEFEATED. MILITIA FLEES BRITISH SACK THE WHITE HOUSE AND THE CAPITOL IS BURNED
DOLLY MADISON SAVES THE CONSTITUTION FLEES CAPITAL WITH RECORDS NEARLY CAPTURED.
BRITISH ATTACK BALTIMORE BOMBARD FORT McHENRY FRANCIS SCOTT KEYES WITNESSES ATTACK WRITES THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER. FORT HOLDS & BRITISH RETREAT.
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS 1814 ANDREW JACKSON DEFEATS SOUTHERN INDIANS AT HORSESHOE BEND. CALLED TO DEFEND NEW ORLEANS. 7000 SAILORS, REGULAR SOLDIERS, PIRATES, MILITIA MEN, & 400 BLACKS.
BRITISH ATTACK HAVE 8000 BATTLE HARDENED SOLDIERS. ATTACK IN FORMATION. AMERICANS IN FORTIFIED POSITIONS 2000 BRITISH CAUSALITIES IN 30 MINUTES. ONLY 70 AMERICANS KILLED. BRITISH WITHDRAW.
VICTORY MAKES JACKSON A NATIONAL HERO. “OLD HICKORY” BATTLE WAS UNNECESSARY, TREATY OF GHENT SIGNED 2 WEEKS EARLIER. NEWS OF VICTORY ARRIVES BEFORE NEWS OF THE TREATY.
THE NAVAL WAR BRITAIN HAD 800 SHIP NAVY U.S. HAD 16 SHIPS MOST FAMOUS “THE CONSTITUTION” OLD IRON SIDES HENRY LAWRENCE “DON’T GIVE UP THE SHIP!” PRIVATEERS “MILITIA OF THE SEAS”
TREATY OF GHENT 1814 TERMS: END THE FIGHTING DECLARE A DRAW NO MENTION OF IMPRESSMENT BORDER DISPUTES SUBMITTED FOR ARBITRATION “NOT ONE INCH OF TERRITORY CEDE OR LOST!”
HARTFORD CONVENTION MADISON RE-ELECTED NEW ENGLAND CALLS CONVENTION: DEMAND REPARATIONS FOR NEW ENGLAND AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION: REQUIRE 2/3 RD VOTE FOR EMBARGO OR DECLARATION OF WAR SOME THREATEN SECESSION.
BAD TIMING PRESENT DEMAND AS WORD OF NEW ORLEANS ARRIVES AND TREATY OF GHENT. FINAL BLOW TO FEDERALIST PARTY.