Presentation on theme: "Jeffersonian Democracy. Many afraid of Jefferson and Republicans Feared “French” social reforms Feared weakened central government Feared threats."— Presentation transcript:
Many afraid of Jefferson and Republicans Feared “French” social reforms Feared weakened central government Feared threats to Hamilton’s financial reforms Republicans narrowly won Election of 1800
Election Crisis Jefferson and Burr (both Republicans) tied with 73 votes Decision went to House of Representatives Vote in House was split through 35 ballots Jefferson possibly made deal with Federalists to preserve Hamilton’s financial system Hamilton convinced Federalists to back Jefferson- Burr became VP Caused 12 th Amendment providing for separate presidential and vice-presidential ballots
Federalists responsible for Strong central government Sound fiscal system Accommodation with Britain Staying out of French Revolution The Constitution Weaknesses of the Federalists Attempted to hang onto power through under- handed methods
Believed all government a necessary evil Objected to Hamilton’s pro-British attitudes Jefferson pro-French Revolution / apologist for Revolution’s excesses “We are all Federalists” Toned down pomp and ceremony of office of president Administration was very partisan
Judiciary Act of 1801 Rammed through Congress just before Republicans took power Created 6 new circuit courts and 16 new federal judges Positions filled with Federalists (midnight judges) by Adams in last hours as president Congress repealed the act when Jefferson became president
Jefferson refused to seat new justices of the peace appointed by Adams One appointee, William Marbury, took his case to court against SofS Madison Marbury v. Madison Chief Justice John Marshall (midnight appointee) Finding in favor of Marbury would place court on collision course with Jefferson – finding against Marbury would be to surrender power of judiciary to Jefferson
Marshall ruled that the clause giving Marbury appointment was unconstitutional – therefore void Marshall turned potential trap into victory – establishing the precedent of judicial review Marbury case infuriated Jefferson Jefferson started impeachment proceedings against more partisan of judges Impeached John Pickering Impeachment attempt against Samuel Chase failed Chief Justice John Marshall
Jefferson refused to pay annual tribute when Pasha of Tripoli raised the amount Tripoli declared war and Jefferson dispatched naval squadron (US Navy had only 7 total frigates) The USS Philadelphia ran aground - had to be destroyed
Tribute continued to 1815 though with more favorable rates US Navy gained more experience Commodore Edward Preble Lieutenant Stephen Decatur
US desired New Orleans – port for US exports New Orleans and territory obtained by Napoleon – France planned new empire in western America Napoleon sent troops to New Orleans – diverted to Haiti (Haitian Revolution) Spain closed port to US
Jefferson sent envoys to France to attempt to buy New Orleans Defeat of French in Haiti soured Napoleon on American empire – needed money to begin new campaign in Europe Offered not only New Orleans but entire Louisiana territory US reps, Livingston and Monroe, bought all for $15 million
Jefferson and government not sure if sale was legal – drafted a constitutional amendment Everyone, including Federalists such as Hamilton, overlooked the problems of legality and ratified the treaty (sale) Sale guaranteed Republican reelection
Republican successes caused die-hard Federalists to consider secession Essex Junto, led by Timothy Pickering, schemed to break away from union and establish Northern Confederacy Junto had little support even among Federalists – attempted to bring Burr into scheme (Burr running for NY governor)
Scheme collapsed when Burr defeated in NY gubernatorial election Hamilton had worked against Burr’s campaign – continued attacking Burr’s character Burr challenged Hamilton to duel Hamilton killed
Jefferson dispatched party to explore new territory Mission was scientific as well as political Other explorations included Thomas Freeman (Red River) and Zebulon Pike (Colorado region)
Lack of meaningful Federalist opposition caused Republicans to break into factions After 1800 election Jefferson hounded Burr Burr negotiated with Britain to establish break- away western state British backed off but Burr continued – joined by Governor of Louisiana James Wilkinson (who was secretly in pay of Spain)
Burr raised a small military force but was betrayed by Wilkinson Burr captured and accused of high treason Trial became struggle between Jefferson and Marshall Burr was acquitted Burr went into exile in Europe – returned to live life of degeneracy in NY Aaron Burr
War in Europe stimulated the US economy Napoleon won mastery of Europe while Britain won mastery of seas Napoleon issued Berlin Decree – made all commerce with Britain illegal British retaliated with Orders in Council – barring trade with Napoleonic Europe
Napoleon issued Milan Decree – declaring any vessel submitting to British rules subject to seizure Both British and French making money off neutral shipping US worked both sides – irritated British
British law gave right for British to stop and impress any British citizen for duty on board British naval ships Large US merchant fleet bore brunt of practice British naval officers treated Americans with disrespect – stole cargo beside impressing sailors
Questions over what was a citizen – British often impressed regardless Some 10,000 British sailors on American ships with varying degrees of American citizenship US angry over taking of native-born US citizens Between 1803 – 1812 5,000 sailors taken by British. Most were American citizens
As war in Europe heated up, American shipping suffered Between 1803 – 1807 British seized 500 American ships and France seized 200 1807 USS Chesapeake stopped by HMS Leopard British demanded 4 sailors – Americans refused British fired on the American ship killing 3 sailors The Chesapeake was forced to surrender the sailors Attack was in violation of international law
Jefferson responded with the Embargo Act Prohibited all exports Law had catastrophic effect – imports and exports plummeted, unemployment increased dramatically Smuggling became commonplace Lawbreakers were seldom punished by local juries Jefferson refused to admit its failure – Congress replace Embargo Act with Non-Intercourse Act Non-Intercourse Act- forbade trade with Britain and France only and trade with either could be reinstated if they promised not to interfere with US ships
Quiz How was the winner of the 1800 presidential election chosen? What amendment came about because of the 1800 election? How did the Federalists attempt to maintain control over the judicial branch? What group organized a scheme to break away from the union and create a Northern confederacy?
Quiz Which president believed in an America of small farms and little government? For Jefferson, what was the most important aspect of the Louisiana Purchase? What court case arose over the Judiciary Act of 1801? What precedent did the case set?
Quiz Who was the Chief Justice? Who was the greatest naval hero emerging from the war with the Barbary Pirates? What expedition explored the Northwestern area of the Louisiana Purchase? Who explored the area of the Purchase around Colorado?
Quiz What did Jefferson attempt to do during his inaugural address? What was the original purpose in negotiations with France over land in the West? What was the Berlin Decree? What were the Orders in Council? What was the cause for Hamilton’s duel with Burr?
Quiz What Republican flirted with treason? During Burr’s trial, what was the behavior of Jefferson and Marshall? What event prompted Jefferson to apply the Embargo Act? What was the result of the Embargo Act? What was impressment?