Presentation on theme: "Castro in Power “Damn those Orioles” - D. Mills »“Come in here dear boy and have a cigar, »You gonna go far…, »That’s what I really think, »Oh by the way."— Presentation transcript:
Castro in Power “Damn those Orioles” - D. Mills »“Come in here dear boy and have a cigar, »You gonna go far…, »That’s what I really think, »Oh by the way which one’s Pink? »-Pink Floyd
Of the twenty-one ministers appointed in January 1959, twelve had resigned or had been ousted by the end of the year. Four more would go out in 1960 as the revolution moved toward a Marxist-Leninism political system.” - Castro consolidates leadership onto his own hands -Cult of fidelismo takes form among the lower classes -Old political forms discredited
Increasingly old constitutional forms gave way to rule by decree - 44 Cuban Air Force pilots acquitted of war crimes but found guilty when Castro orders retrial- “Revolutionary Justice is based not on legal precepts but on moral conviction” Castro is extremely popular with the masses - The Revolution becomes the justification for everything Castro does -The masses formed the foundation, and Castro was the charismatic jefe maximo - 1500 decrees, laws and edicts in first 9 months of 1959
Many forms of legal discrimination abolished Elections are deferred indefinitely People opposed to Castro for whatever reason are declared traitors to the Revolution Castro turns increasingly to the PSP throughout 1959 By late 1959 organized resistance from exiles begins to take effect
People opposed to communism were portrayed as enemies - “To be a traitor to the Revolution is to be a traitor to the country” - “In a revolutionary process there are no neutrals, there are only partisans of the revolution or enemies of it” -Castro Free press was eliminated - Opponents of Castro begin leaving in large numbers
Souring relations with US 1959 January 7. Castro arrives in Havana March 3. The Cuban government nationalizes the Cuban Telephone Company, as affiliate of ITT, and reduces telephone rates. 1 st Urban Reform law passed –Sought to discourage investment in real estate –Rents reduced dramatically
May 17. Castro signs Agrarian Reform Act, which expropriates farmlands over 1,000 acres and forbids land ownership –Compensation given in 20 year bonds –INRA – Agrarian Reform Institute formed June. In Cairo, Che Guevara makes the first official contact with the Soviet Union
1960 February 6. Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Anastas Mikoyan arrives in Havana –The visit results in a trade agreement in which the Soviet Union agrees to purchase 5 million tons of sugar over a five-year period. The Soviets will supply Cuba with crude oil and petroleum products, as well as with wheat, iron, fertilizers, and machinery. They also provide Cuba with a $100 million credit at 2.5 interest. –Several Eastern European Nations follow Soviet lead
March 4. The French ship La Coubre explodes in Havana harbor, killing dozens of soldiers and workers. The ship was carrying a shipment of Belgian small arms. March 17. President Eisenhower approves a covert action plan against Cuba that includes the use of a “powerful propaganda campaign” designed to overthrow Castro the plan includes: a) the termination of sugar purchases b) the end of oil deliveries c)continuation of the arms embargo in effect since mid- 1958 d) the organization of a paramilitary force of Cuban exiles to invade the island.
April 19. The first shipment of Soviet oil arrives in Havana. Well below market prices. May 8. Cuba and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations. June 7. Shell, Esso and Texaco refuse to refine Soviet oil due to pressure from US govt. At the same time, US companies, under pressure from the US govt, refuse to sell fuel to Cuba.
July 1. Castro nationalizes US Oil refineries July 3. In response to these seizures, the US congress passes the “Sugar Act,” eliminating Cuba’s remaining sugar quota. July 5. Cuba retaliates by nationalizing US businesses and commercial property. July 6. President Eisenhower cancels the 700,000 tons of sugar remaining in Cuba’s quota for 1960 July 8. The Soviet Union announces that it will purchase the 700,000 tons of sugar cut by the US
Aug- US Utilities and Sugar mills expropriated September 17. Cuba nationalizes all US banks Oct 13. 2 nd Urban reform law passed –Restricted ownership to one residence –382 private enterprises, regardless of nationality, seized October 19. US imposes a partial economic embargo on Cuba that excludes food and medicine. October 24. Cuba nationalizes most remaining properties owned by American interests in response to the economic embargo imposed by the US
Flight from Cuba December 26. A dozen Cuba children travel from Havana airport to the US, beginning Operation Peter Pan –14,000 children sent US encourages flight- eases immigration restrictions –Provides aid although only 5% need it Castro does not discourage immigration- at first 180,000 middle and upper class people emigrate from Cuba from 1959 to 1961 –Cuba loses more than 50% of its doctors and teachers in the first 2 years of the revolution –75% of skilled workers and technicians
Most Cuban refugees expected US to overthrow Castro and then to return US finds very little basis in Cuba for supporting a revolution Only exile resistance can be mustered Results in Bay of Pigs
1961 January 3. The official break of diplomatic relations between the US and Cuba. Jan to April- many attempts to sabotage and ferment rebellion and Cuba April 17. Cuban exiles, trained and armed by the US CIA, invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs (known in Cuba as Playa Giron). After three days of fighting the invading force is defeated by the Cuban army.
April 19. Castro formally declares that the revolution is “socialist.” In Havana, 10 counterrevolutionaries, including Humberto Sori Marin, Manuel Puig and Regelio Gonzalez Corso are executed for treason. November 30. US President John F. Kennedy authorizes Operation Mongoose, which aims to eliminate Fidel Castro and Cuban Revolution December 2. Castro declares himself a “Marxist-Leninist.”
1962 January 22. Under US encouragement, the Organization of American States (OAS) suspends Cuban membership Feb- March – Kennedy expands economic embargo –All produce except non subsidized food and medicine –All goods made from or containing Cuban materials, even if made in other countries. May 29 – High-level Soviet delegation arrives secretly in Havana to suggest the deployment of nuclear weapons in Cuba.
July 2. Raul Castro, Minister of the Armed Forces arrives in Moscow. September 8. Soviet freighter Omsk arrives in Cuba with the first shipment of MRBMs. October 14. The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when US reconnaissance aircraft photograph Soviet construction of intermediate-range missile sites in Cuba. October 25. Soviet officials agree to remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba December 24. The US exchanges $53 million of medicines and baby food for 1,113 exiles captured in the “Bay of Pigs” invasion. A few prisoners remain until 1986.
1963 February 8. The Kennedy administration prohibits travel to Cuba and makes financial and commercial transactions with Cuba illegal for US citizens.