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Essential Questions What are the key issues of Jefferson’s administration? Why the exceptions to “limited and negative” government? What’s the significance.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions What are the key issues of Jefferson’s administration? Why the exceptions to “limited and negative” government? What’s the significance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Questions What are the key issues of Jefferson’s administration? Why the exceptions to “limited and negative” government? What’s the significance of Marbury v Madison? What are the factors that led to the War of 1812? What is the significance of the war? What are examples of states rights?

2 Characteristics of the Period Social leveling – egalitarian ideas – but not for slaves  Petitions for emancipation  Haiti & L’Ouverture – American fears  Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion- new codes increased control Economics  Carrying trade & early textiles –NE  Agriculture – S and W Expansion west – opportunity  Indians – more clashes; choices – move, assimilate, fight for land Increased regionalism

3 Jefferson’s Goals – “negative and limited government” Limited government – cut size of bureaucracy Frugal government – cut spending & deficits; decrease size of army & navy Strict construction

4 Jefferson President and party leader – co-opts the Federalist and increases DR Development of one party – National Republicans – problems with factions Accomplished most goals Problem = neutral rights

5 Election of 1808

6 Exceptions to “negative and Limited” government –WHY? BUS – Gallatin Federally funded internal improvements (FFII) – National Road Barbary Pirates – undeclared war; goes around Congress (argh!) Louisiana Purchase 1803 Trade Embargo 1807

7 National Road

8 Barbary Pirates

9 Decatur & the Barbary Pirates

10 Louisiana Purchase 1803 Mississippi River & New Orleans critical to western expansion French threat - US options purchase NO or treaty w/BR Napoleon offers for $15 million – purchase – but issue = constitutionality Federalist concerns TJ justification Lewis and Clark – scientific, cultural and CIA mission LA Gov’t Act – exception to democracy

11 Louisiana Purchase 1803

12 War on the Judiciary Judiciary Act of 1801  Expands # of judges – appoints Federalists  “midnight judges” – keep control of J  Marshall = chief Impeachment – Chase & Pickering  Failure sg for independent judiciary

13 John Marshall

14 Marshall’s goals Increase the power of the judiciary – check and balance Increase/maintain the power of the federal government Create climate for economic stability and growth (market economy; Hamiltonian ideas)

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16 Marbury v Madison 1803 Issue – commissions not given Writ of Mandamus Marshall court rules this part of Judiciary Act 1789 unconstitutional Established the principle of judicial review of Supreme Court over acts of Congress Protects the power of the court

17 Internal Divisions Tertium Quids – faction with in National Republican – old values  Yazoo Land Claims  Fletcher v Peck 1810 Slave trade issues  Who gets confiscated slaves  Outlawed but

18 States Rights and Separation - Burr Essex Junto 1804 Northern Confederacy –NE/NY Hamilton foils The Duel Western Conspiracy 1807 Empire in west, take out of union and conquer Mexico Treason trial –overt actions

19 The Duel

20 Foreign Policy: Western Expansion Goal Increased pressure on Ohio – white and Indian –competition  Harrison –Jeffersonian policies  Tecumseh, The Prophet (Tenskwatawa) -- choices Environmental/ecological impact Br role Frontier culture – Second Great Awakening

21 Second Great Awakening

22 Tecumseh & the Prophet

23 Foreign Policy Goal: National Security and Neutral Rights Issue – BOP Europe -Napoleonic Wars BR USA FR US caught between conflicting policies –no respect of neutral rights - impressment Orders in Council v Continental System Essex decision-----Milan/Berlin Decrees

24 Napoleonic Wars and Neutral Rights Q1806  Berlin Decrees-“Continental System” Q1806  Britain issued the “Order in Council.” Q1807  Milan Decrees Q  Britain impressed over 6,000 American sailors.

25 Chesapeake and Leopard June 21, June 21, Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. 3 dead, 18 wounded. 3 dead, 18 wounded. Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake. Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake. Jefferson’s Response: Jefferson’s Response:  Forbade Br. ships to dock in American ports.  Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen.

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27 Chesapeake and Leopard

28 Jefferson’s Response: Exception to limited government--WHY Embargo Act 1807 –”peaceful coercion”  ALL TRADE prevented  Impact –huge economic losses Non-Intercourse Act 1809 – lasts to 1812  all but BR and FR  NE pushed toward manufacturing and self sufficiency Macon’s Bill #  Open ---but plays off rivals War declaration – June why

29 Political Cartoon

30 War of 1812: Causes Neutral Rights – free trade/free seas Indians – Tecumseh and the Prophet Pan Indian Confederacy War hawks –  Canada – lust for land/opportunity

31 Brock & Tecumseh

32 War Hawks Clay Calhoun

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34 James & Dolly Madison

35 Two Wars: Indians ---British Indians – western expansion – OPP. Tippecanoe 1809 Thames 1813 Horseshoe Bend 1814 Harrison & Jackson British – neutral rights and respect – Offense  Lake Erie  Can’t take Canada 1814 – Defense  Washington/McHenr y

36 Key Battles

37 War 1813

38 Battle of the Thames

39 Washington 1814

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42 Dolly Madison and the Burning

43 Fort McHenry

44 Patriot’s View

45 Jackson’s Campaigns

46 Jackson at Horseshoe Bend

47 Battle of New Orleans

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49 Opposition: New England Most hurt by embargo – didn’t obey Mr. Madison’s War – trade w/ enemy Hartford Convention – Dec 1814 (states rights) Demands  One term pres –not from same state  2/3 vote for embargo, war, new states  End 3/5 rule  No naturalized citizen in high office

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51 Treaty of Ghent: Dec 1814 “status quo ante bellum” Napoleon loose –changes concerns Ends demands of Hartford Convention January 1815 – Battle of New Orleans

52 Signing of the Treaty of Ghent

53 Anglo-American Relations

54 Significance of the War of 1812 Maintains independence Creates war heroes – Harrison/Jackson Stimulates patriotism and nationalism Stimulates domestic manufacturing Indian confederacy is shattered – western expansion Leads to American System – support for more active national government - increased role Anglo- American Relations stable


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