Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions What are the key issues of Jefferson’s administration? Why the exceptions to “limited and negative” government? What’s the significance."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions What are the key issues of Jefferson’s administration? Why the exceptions to “limited and negative” government? What’s the significance of Marbury v Madison? What are the factors that led to the War of 1812? What is the significance of the war? What are examples of states rights?
Characteristics of the Period Social leveling – egalitarian ideas – but not for slaves Petitions for emancipation Haiti & L’Ouverture – American fears Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion- new codes increased control Economics Carrying trade & early textiles –NE Agriculture – S and W Expansion west – opportunity Indians – more clashes; choices – move, assimilate, fight for land Increased regionalism
Jefferson’s Goals – “negative and limited government” Limited government – cut size of bureaucracy Frugal government – cut spending & deficits; decrease size of army & navy Strict construction
Jefferson President and party leader – co-opts the Federalist and increases DR Development of one party – National Republicans – problems with factions Accomplished most goals Problem = neutral rights
Exceptions to “negative and Limited” government –WHY? BUS – Gallatin Federally funded internal improvements (FFII) – National Road Barbary Pirates – undeclared war; goes around Congress (argh!) Louisiana Purchase 1803 Trade Embargo 1807
Louisiana Purchase 1803 Mississippi River & New Orleans critical to western expansion French threat - US options purchase NO or treaty w/BR Napoleon offers for $15 million – purchase – but issue = constitutionality Federalist concerns TJ justification Lewis and Clark – scientific, cultural and CIA mission LA Gov’t Act – exception to democracy
War on the Judiciary Judiciary Act of 1801 Expands # of judges – appoints Federalists “midnight judges” – keep control of J Marshall = chief Impeachment – Chase & Pickering Failure sg for independent judiciary
Marshall’s goals Increase the power of the judiciary – check and balance Increase/maintain the power of the federal government Create climate for economic stability and growth (market economy; Hamiltonian ideas)
Marbury v Madison 1803 Issue – commissions not given Writ of Mandamus Marshall court rules this part of Judiciary Act 1789 unconstitutional Established the principle of judicial review of Supreme Court over acts of Congress Protects the power of the court
Internal Divisions Tertium Quids – faction with in National Republican – old values Yazoo Land Claims Fletcher v Peck 1810 Slave trade issues Who gets confiscated slaves Outlawed 1808 ----but
States Rights and Separation - Burr Essex Junto 1804 Northern Confederacy –NE/NY Hamilton foils The Duel Western Conspiracy 1807 Empire in west, take out of union and conquer Mexico Treason trial –overt actions
Foreign Policy: Western Expansion Goal Increased pressure on Ohio – white and Indian –competition Harrison –Jeffersonian policies Tecumseh, The Prophet (Tenskwatawa) -- choices Environmental/ecological impact Br role Frontier culture – Second Great Awakening
Foreign Policy Goal: National Security and Neutral Rights Issue – BOP Europe -Napoleonic Wars BR -------USA--------FR US caught between conflicting policies –no respect of neutral rights - impressment Orders in Council v Continental System Essex decision-----Milan/Berlin Decrees
Napoleonic Wars and Neutral Rights Q1806 Berlin Decrees-“Continental System” Q1806 Britain issued the “Order in Council.” Q1807 Milan Decrees Q1808-1811 Britain impressed over 6,000 American sailors.
Chesapeake and Leopard June 21, 1807. June 21, 1807. Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. 3 dead, 18 wounded. 3 dead, 18 wounded. Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake. Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake. Jefferson’s Response: Jefferson’s Response: Forbade Br. ships to dock in American ports. Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen.
Jefferson’s Response: Exception to limited government--WHY Embargo Act 1807 –”peaceful coercion” ALL TRADE prevented Impact –huge economic losses Non-Intercourse Act 1809 – lasts to 1812 all but BR and FR NE pushed toward manufacturing and self sufficiency Macon’s Bill #2 1810 Open ---but plays off rivals War declaration – June 1812 ---why
Two Wars: Indians ---British Indians – western expansion – OPP. Tippecanoe 1809 Thames 1813 Horseshoe Bend 1814 Harrison & Jackson British – neutral rights and respect 1812-13 – Offense Lake Erie Can’t take Canada 1814 – Defense Washington/McHenr y
Opposition: New England Most hurt by embargo – didn’t obey Mr. Madison’s War – trade w/ enemy Hartford Convention – Dec 1814 (states rights) Demands One term pres –not from same state 2/3 vote for embargo, war, new states End 3/5 rule No naturalized citizen in high office
Significance of the War of 1812 Maintains independence Creates war heroes – Harrison/Jackson Stimulates patriotism and nationalism Stimulates domestic manufacturing Indian confederacy is shattered – western expansion Leads to American System – support for more active national government - increased role Anglo- American Relations stable
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