Presentation on theme: "THE TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC"— Presentation transcript:
1THE TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC AP U.S. HistoryChapter 11
2THE JEFFERSONIAN “REVOLUTION OF 1800” – JEFFERSONIAN RESTRAINT "Revolution of 1800" -- significant for its unprecedented peaceful transfer of power“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” – more harmonious spirit in politics"Honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."Simple inauguration - simple administration – reduced number of grand balls/dinners, sent annual messages to Congress by clerk (done until Woodrow Wilson), rode horseback, small dinners served at a round table, wore no wig and homespun clothes (once answered callers in dressing gown/slippers).
3Jefferson - kept most of Hamilton's financial plan intact Real threat to republic – taxes, standing army, public corruptionMost vigilant/virtuous people – educated farmers. Least – residents of cities (breeding grounds for mobs)Studied science – every scientific advance would increase human happinessJefferson - kept most of Hamilton's financial plan intactDid not keep excise taxesMaintained BankRetained tariffDid not tamper with funding national debt at par and assumption of state debts.
4Jefferson reversed certain Federalist policies Pardoned/returned fines - guilty under the Sedition LawNew naturalization law in 1802 – 5 year requirementSucceeded in substantially reducing the national debt ($80 million to $57 million) while balancing the budget - cut gov’t spending – Albert Gallatin – Sec. of TreasuryReduced Hamilton’s standing army but kept strong navy – 3,350 officers and men – rely on it only for national defense.
5JEFFERSON, A RELUCTANT WARRIOR 1801 – Ordered Navy to MediterraneanTripolitan War ( )After 4 years of fighting, Tripoli was forced to sign a treaty 1805Jefferson - build upa fleet of small gunboats(later criticized as the"mosquito fleet") as itlater proved ineffectiveduring the War of 1812
6Jefferson and the Judiciary No Republicans sat on federal judiciaryStill upset over enforcement of A and S ActsJudiciary Act of 1801 – reduced Supreme Court judges from 6 to 5 (Jefferson could not appoint when there was a vacancy), and increased the number of federal judges (16) – assured Federalists domination of the federal courts."midnight judges"Act repealed by Rep congress (1802)
7John Marshall Chief Justice - 34 years Committed to strengthening the federal government.Maintained Federalist principles - “Ghost of Alexander Hamilton”
8MEANS… Marbury vs Madison, 1803 William Marbury sued for delivery of his commission - held up by new secretary of state James Madison.Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold Adams' appointments under the Judiciary Act of 1801.Marshall ruled Madison under no legal obligation b/c Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority.MarburyMadisonMEANS…
9Judicial ReviewMarshall ruled part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, an act of Congress, unconstitutionalSupreme Court - power to rule legislative acts unconstitutional. Supreme Court has the ultimate say-so.Power of Supreme Courtgreatly enhancedInscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall (statue, foreground) outlined the concept of judicial review.
10Meantime…. Does excessively partisan fit this? Impeaching two Federalist Judges – John Pickering (insane/ alcoholic) and Samuel Chase (big-time Federalistwho jailed Republicans under Sedition Act)Impeachment – treason, bribery, and “high crimes and misdemeanors”Does excessively partisan fit this?
11The Louisiana Purchase Treaty of San Ildefonso – Spain ceded to France6 months to get news, minutes to realize…Spanish withdrew right of deposit at New Orleans guaranteed under the Pinckney Treaty of 1795.Monroe/Livingston to Paris – buy New Orleans, as much of Florida as possible
12Louisiana Territory purchased for $15 million (1/4 was debts owed by French to Americans that we would pay). Doubled our size, gave farmers enough land for long time, insured access to MS river.
13Constitutional????? Jefferson accepted TREATY reluctantly Justified if as providing farmers with more land.Federalists opposed LA PurchaseDecrease Eastern stronghold
14Most important land purchase in U.S. History 1. Doubled size of U.S. for only 3 cents an acre – a BARGAIN and a SURPRISE PACKAGE!!! 2. Guaranteed MS River/New Orleans 3. Paved way for westward expansion - By 1890 all remaining Native Americans in West would be killed or forced onto reservations. John Jacob Astor formed the American Fur Company in tap into the newly purchased territory; eventually resulted in U.S. claim to Oregon 4. Ended European expansion in North America (for the most part) 5. Avoided possible war with France, entangling alliance with Britain. However, a few weeks after the LA Purchase, FR declared war on GB, which dominated American politics for the next 11 years 6. Boosted American nationalism
15The Lewis and Clark Expedition Western boundary???Meriwether LewisWilliam Clark, 50 othersFrench fur-trader/wife, SacajaweaU.S. claim to Oregon; further opened West to Indian trade, exploration. Demonstrated viability of an overland trail to the Pacific – missionaries, fur trades and settlers.Collected scientific info, tall talesZebulon M. Pike , went into Colorado & New Mexico; discovered Pike’s Peak
17Jefferson wins again in 1804 Republicans got rid of Burr…First term success – U.S. doubled its territory, taken steps to pay off debt, remained at PEACE!Jefferson wins again in 1804
18The Gathering Storm… 1803-1814 Renewal of Napoleonic Wars Federalists weakened, but Republicans - internal squabbles…Burr big problem…“Quids”
19The Suppression of American Trade 1803 – Britain and France resumed their war…U.S. – carrying supplies from FR/SP Caribbean colonies to EuropeNapoleon – supplies, HURT Britain (driving down prices from their colonies – economic probs)1803 – 1807 U.S. exports rose from $66.5 million to $102.2 million.England – “Orders in Council" – blockade of French-controlled ports of Europe.France – “Continental System” – ships obeying British regulations subject to seizure…RESULT – ALL AMERICAN TRADE WITH EUROPE HAD BEEN OUTLAWED!!
20Both FR/BR seizing ships… British more humilitating…Off OUR coastBritish Impressment6,000 Americans impressed betweenChesapeake-Leopard Affair (June 21, 1807) - H.M.S. Leopard demanded surrender of four** alleged British deserters on U.S.S. Chesapeake . Leopard fired at the Chesapeake: 3 dead; 18 wounded.
21Sought PEACE Chesapeake Affair enraged country Made some preparations for war, BUT…Sought PEACE
22THE HATED EMBARGO Prohibited only exports, but… Jefferson wanted to avoid war – taxes, debt, defeat would be bad for the U.S. BUT – at the same time could not give in to the mistreatment.Embargo Act – 1807 – prohibited ships from leaving American ports for foreign ports.Prohibited only exports, but…“Peaceable coercion” – pressure both nations to respect our rights
23British sales to the U.S. dropped 50%, but they found new markets in South America Also – Embargo Act contained loopholesShips blown off course…Napoleon seized ships (enforcement??)
24Embargo Act disaster to the U.S. economy In 1807 U.S. exports = $108 million ; in 1808 = $22 million. Merchants (bankrupt/jail), shipping (30,000 seamen out of work), farmers (can’t pay debts) all hurt.Congress repealed - March 1, 1809 (3 days before Jefferson left office)
25Election of 1808 Republican - James Madison Federalists - significant gains in Congress (although still in minority) and gained control of several state legislatures.
26Non-Intercourse Act (1809) – replaced Embargo Act Reopened trade with all nations of the world except BR and FR (trade would reopen if they stopped violating our rights) – they didn’t, so…Macon’s Bill #2 – Opened trade with BR and FR, then a bribe – if either nation repealed its restrictions we would stop trade with other.
27Reasons for embargo's failure Overestimated British dependence on U.S. tradeEmbargo not in effect long enough, administered effectivelyEmbargo Act proved to be three times as costly as war -- U.S. lost opportunity to build a strong navyNortheastern Federalists undermined Embargo through smuggling.
28The Embargo Act inadvertently sparked the Industrial Revolution New England - self-sufficient -- Textile factoriesThe Embargo eventually hurt Britain - British importers and textile manufacturers saw major losses
29Madison (now President) under fire from aggressive Republicans South and West – “War Hawks”Henry Clay (KY) and John C.Calhoun (SC)Economic Recession
30TECUMSEH AND THE PROPHET Fear of Indian threat in west (with help of British in Canada)Tecumseh, brother “the Prophet” organized several tribes in OH, IN and attacked settlers.William H. Harrison’s army - defeated the Prophet at Battle of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames
31“Tecumseh’s Curse” 1840 – William H. Harrison - pneumonia 1860 – Abraham Lincoln - assassination1880 – James Garfield - assassination1900 – William McKinley - assassination1920 – Warren G. Harding – heart attack/stroke/poison?1940 – Franklin D. Roosevelt – cerebral hemorrhage1960 – John F. Kennedy - assassinated1980 – Ronald Reagan – attempted assassination (injured but not killed)2000 – George W. Bush – attempted assassination (not injured)
32Congress Votes for War Causes: June 1st – War message to Congress ImpressmentBritish ships in American watersBritish violations of neutral rightsIncitement of IndiansUnderlying cause – economic recession affecting S and WMadison
33U.S. declared war on Britain in June, 1812 - 1st declaration of war under the Constitution
34The War of 1812 British – naval blockade on American coast Ally – Native AmericansAmericans – few militiamen understood goals of warFocused on Canada, unsuccessfully…
35The Treaty of Ghent 1814 – Ghent, Belgium (signed Christmas Eve) British really not gaining anything, wanted peace in Europe, so…Treaty:restored the status quo ante bellumBoundary issue between U.S./Canada referred to joint commissions for future settlementNothing done about impressment
36Battle of New Orleans Most dramatic American victory!!! Jan. 1815Andrew Jackson and men in an hour inflicted more than 2,000 casualties while losing only 13 Americans.
37The Hartford Convention Battle of New Orleans – impact on domestic politics…Northeast – hurt by Embargo, “Mr. Madison’s War”Talk of secessionLate 1814 – convention in Hartford, CT – series of resolutions:
38Abolish 3/5 clause2/3 vote in Congress required to declare war2/3 vote in Congress to admit new statesLimit President to 1 termProhibit election of 2 successive presidents from same stateBar embargoes lasting more than 60 days
39Federalists finished as a force in national politics!!! Seen as a TRAITOROUS PLOTFederalists finished as a force in national politics!!!