Presentation on theme: "THE TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC AP U.S. History Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:
THE TRIUMPHS AND TRAVAILS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC AP U.S. History Chapter 11
THE JEFFERSONIAN “REVOLUTION OF 1800” – JEFFERSONIAN RESTRAINT "Revolution of 1800" -- significant for its unprecedented peaceful transfer of power “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” – more harmonious spirit in politics "Honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none." Simple inauguration - simple administration – reduced number of grand balls/dinners, sent annual messages to Congress by clerk (done until Woodrow Wilson), rode horseback, small dinners served at a round table, wore no wig and homespun clothes (once answered callers in dressing gown/slippers).
Real threat to republic – taxes, standing army, public corruption Most vigilant/virtuous people – educated farmers. Least – residents of cities (breeding grounds for mobs) Studied science – every scientific advance would increase human happiness Jefferson - kept most of Hamilton's financial plan intact Did not keep excise taxes Maintained Bank Retained tariff Did not tamper with funding national debt at par and assumption of state debts.
Jefferson reversed certain Federalist policies – Pardoned/returned fines - guilty under the Sedition Law – New naturalization law in 1802 – 5 year requirement Succeeded in substantially reducing the national debt ($80 million to $57 million) while balancing the budget - cut gov’t spending – Albert Gallatin – Sec. of Treasury Reduced Hamilton’s standing army but kept strong navy – 3,350 officers and men – rely on it only for national defense.
JEFFERSON, A RELUCTANT WARRIOR Tripolitan War ( ) After 4 years of fighting, Tripoli was forced to sign a treaty 1805 Jefferson - build up a fleet of small gunboats (later criticized as the "mosquito fleet") as it later proved ineffective during the War of – Ordered Navy to Mediterranean
Jefferson and the Judiciary No Republicans sat on federal judiciary Still upset over enforcement of A and S Acts Judiciary Act of 1801 – reduced Supreme Court judges from 6 to 5 (Jefferson could not appoint when there was a vacancy), and increased the number of federal judges (16) – assured Federalists domination of the federal courts. "midnight judges" Act repealed by Rep congress (1802)
John Marshall Chief Justice - 34 years Committed to strengthening the federal government. Maintained Federalist principles - “Ghost of Alexander Hamilton”
Marbury vs Madison, 1803 William Marbury sued for delivery of his commission - held up by new secretary of state James Madison. Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold Adams' appointments under the Judiciary Act of Marshall ruled Madison under no legal obligation b/c Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. Marbury Madison MEANS…
Judicial Review Marshall ruled part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, an act of Congress, unconstitutional Supreme Court - power to rule legislative acts unconstitutional. Supreme Court has the ultimate say-so. Power of Supreme Court greatly enhanced Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall (statue, foreground) outlined the concept of judicial review.
Meantime…. Impeaching two Federalist Judges – John Pickering (insane/ alcoholic) and Samuel Chase (big-time Federalist who jailed Republicans under Sedition Act) Impeachment – treason, bribery, and “high crimes and misdemeanors” Does excessively partisan fit this?
The Louisiana Purchase Treaty of San Ildefonso – Spain ceded to France – 6 months to get news, minutes to realize… Spanish withdrew right of deposit at New Orleans guaranteed under the Pinckney Treaty of Monroe/Livingston to Paris – buy New Orleans, as much of Florida as possible
Louisiana Territory purchased for $15 million (1/4 was debts owed by French to Americans that we would pay). Doubled our size, gave farmers enough land for long time, insured access to MS river.
Constitutional????? Jefferson accepted TREATY reluctantly – Justified if as providing farmers with more land. Federalists opposed LA Purchase Decrease Eastern stronghold
Most important land purchase in U.S. History 1. Doubled size of U.S. for only 3 cents an acre – a BARGAIN and a SURPRISE PACKAGE!!! 2. Guaranteed MS River/New Orleans 3. Paved way for westward expansion - By 1890 all remaining Native Americans in West would be killed or forced onto reservations. John Jacob Astor formed the American Fur Company in tap into the newly purchased territory; eventually resulted in U.S. claim to Oregon 4. Ended European expansion in North America (for the most part) 5. Avoided possible war with France, entangling alliance with Britain. However, a few weeks after the LA Purchase, FR declared war on GB, which dominated American politics for the next 11 years 6. Boosted American nationalism
The Lewis and Clark Expedition Western boundary??? Meriwether Lewis William Clark, 50 others French fur-trader/wife, Sacajawea U.S. claim to Oregon; further opened West to Indian trade, exploration. Demonstrated viability of an overland trail to the Pacific – missionaries, fur trades and settlers. Collected scientific info, tall tales Zebulon M. Pike , went into Colorado & New Mexico; discovered Pike’s Peak
Jefferson wins again in 1804 Republicans got rid of Burr… First term success – U.S. doubled its territory, taken steps to pay off debt, remained at PEACE!
The Gathering Storm… Renewal of Napoleonic Wars Federalists weakened, but Republicans - internal squabbles… – Burr big problem… – “Quids”
The Suppression of American Trade 1803 – Britain and France resumed their war… U.S. – carrying supplies from FR/SP Caribbean colonies to Europe Napoleon – supplies, HURT Britain (driving down prices from their colonies – economic probs) 1803 – 1807 U.S. exports rose from $66.5 million to $102.2 million. England – “Orders in Council" – blockade of French- controlled ports of Europe. France – “Continental System” – ships obeying British regulations subject to seizure… RESULT – ALL AMERICAN TRADE WITH EUROPE HAD BEEN OUTLAWED!!
Both FR/BR seizing ships… – British more humilitating… Off OUR coast British Impressment 6,000 Americans impressed between Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (June 21, 1807) - H.M.S. Leopard demanded surrender of four** alleged British deserters on U.S.S. Chesapeake. Leopard fired at the Chesapeake: 3 dead; 18 wounded.
Chesapeake Affair enraged country Made some preparations for war, BUT… Sought PEACE
THE HATED EMBARGO Jefferson wanted to avoid war – taxes, debt, defeat would be bad for the U.S. BUT – at the same time could not give in to the mistreatment. Embargo Act – 1807 – prohibited ships from leaving American ports for foreign ports. Prohibited only exports, but… “Peaceable coercion” – pressure both nations to respect our rights
British sales to the U.S. dropped 50%, but they found new markets in South America Also – Embargo Act contained loopholes – Ships blown off course… Napoleon seized ships (enforcement??)
Embargo Act disaster to the U.S. economy In 1807 U.S. exports = $108 million ; in 1808 = $22 million. Merchants (bankrupt/jail), shipping (30,000 seamen out of work), farmers (can’t pay debts) all hurt. Congress repealed - March 1, 1809 (3 days before Jefferson left office)
Election of 1808 Republican - James Madison Federalists - significant gains in Congress (although still in minority) and gained control of several state legislatures.
Non-Intercourse Act (1809) – replaced Embargo Act – Reopened trade with all nations of the world except BR and FR (trade would reopen if they stopped violating our rights) – they didn’t, so… – Macon’s Bill #2 – Opened trade with BR and FR, then a bribe – if either nation repealed its restrictions we would stop trade with other.
Reasons for embargo's failure 1.Overestimated British dependence on U.S. trade 2.Embargo not in effect long enough, administered effectively 3.Embargo Act proved to be three times as costly as war -- U.S. lost opportunity to build a strong navy 4.Northeastern Federalists undermined Embargo through smuggling.
The Embargo Act inadvertently sparked the Industrial Revolution New England - self-sufficient -- Textile factories The Embargo eventually hurt Britain - British importers and textile manufacturers saw major losses
Madison (now President) under fire from aggressive Republicans South and West – “War Hawks” Henry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC) Economic Recession
TECUMSEH AND THE PROPHET Fear of Indian threat in west (with help of British in Canada) – Tecumseh, brother “the Prophet” organized several tribes in OH, IN and attacked settlers. William H. Harrison’s army - defeated the Prophet at Battle of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames
“Tecumseh’s Curse” 1840 – William H. Harrison - pneumonia 1860 – Abraham Lincoln - assassination 1880 – James Garfield - assassination 1900 – William McKinley - assassination 1920 – Warren G. Harding – heart attack/stroke/poison? 1940 – Franklin D. Roosevelt – cerebral hemorrhage 1960 – John F. Kennedy - assassinated 1980 – Ronald Reagan – attempted assassination (injured but not killed) 2000 – George W. Bush – attempted assassination (not injured)
Congress Votes for War June 1 st – War message to Congress Causes: Impressment British ships in American waters British violations of neutral rights Incitement of Indians Underlying cause – economic recession affecting S and W Madison
U.S. declared war on Britain in June, st declaration of war under the Constitution
The War of 1812 British – naval blockade on American coast Ally – Native Americans Americans – few militiamen understood goals of war Focused on Canada, unsuccessfully…
The Treaty of Ghent 1814 – Ghent, Belgium (signed Christmas Eve) British really not gaining anything, wanted peace in Europe, so… Treaty: restored the status quo ante bellum Boundary issue between U.S./Canada referred to joint commissions for future settlement Nothing done about impressment
Battle of New Orleans Most dramatic American victory!!! – Jan Andrew Jackson and men in an hour inflicted more than 2,000 casualties while losing only 13 Americans.
The Hartford Convention Battle of New Orleans – impact on domestic politics… Northeast – hurt by Embargo, “Mr. Madison’s War” – Talk of secession Late 1814 – convention in Hartford, CT – series of resolutions:
Abolish 3/5 clause 2/3 vote in Congress required to declare war 2/3 vote in Congress to admit new states Limit President to 1 term Prohibit election of 2 successive presidents from same state Bar embargoes lasting more than 60 days
Seen as a TRAITOROUS PLOT Federalists finished as a force in national politics!!!