Presentation on theme: "A time of Conflict Trade essential to American economy."— Presentation transcript:
A time of Conflict Trade essential to American economy
Ships are attacked in Mediterranean sea 1. Barbary States a. Morocco, Tunisia, Algiers, Tripoli
The Barbary pirates operated off the coast of North Africa as far back as the time of the Crusades. According to legend, the Barbary pirates sailed as far as Iceland, attacking ports, seizing captives as slaves, and plundering merchant ships.
Paying tribute As most seafaring nations found it easier, and cheaper, to bribe the pirates rather than fight them in a war, a tradition developed of paying tribute for passage through the Mediterranean. European nations often worked out treaties with the Barbary pirates.
Change of Policy-Seals of 1804 The US government adopted a policy of essentially paying bribes, or tribute, to the pirates. When Thomas Jefferson became president, he refused to pay any more tribute to the Barbary pirates. And in May 1801, two months after he was inaugurated, the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States. The US Congress never issued an official declaration of war in response, but Jefferson dispatched a naval squadron to the coast of North Africa to deal with the pirates.
The Philadelphia was launched in 1800 and saw service in the Caribbean before becoming involved in a pivotal incident in the first war against the Barbary pirates. The capture of the Philadelphia was a victory for the pirates, but their triumph was short-lived.
In February 1804, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur of the US Navy, sailing a captured ship, managed to sail into the harbor at Tripoli and recapture the Philadelphia. He burned the ship so it couldn't be used by the pirates. Decatur's daring action became a naval legend.
To the Shores of Tripoli In April 1805 the US Navy, with US Marines, launched an operation against the port of Tripoli. The objective was to install a new ruler. The detachment of Marines, under the command of Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon, led a frontal assault on a harbor fort at the Battle of Derna. O'Bannon and his small force captured the fort. Marking the first American victory on foreign soil, O'Bannon raised an American flag over the fortress. The mention of the "shores of Tripoli" in the "Marine's Hymn" refers to this triumph.
II.American Neutrality is Challenged A. Britain and France continue to challenge American trade as a result of their war B. Seizing of trade ships by each C. Britain 1000 and France 500 between 1803-1807 D. British impress sailors for their navy
III.Jefferson responds A. Embargo act- forbids foreign trade B. The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars. The circumstances leading to the embargo arose from flagrant violations of US neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the belligerent European navies C. US economy suffers greatest 1. $109,000,000 to $25,000,000 in imports 2. Businesses closed people lost jobs 3. Smuggling became a way to avoid the embargo
4. Congress repealed the law in 1809 5. Trade reopened with everyone but Britain and France 6. When they respected our rights they would be included
Tecumseh and the Prophet Prophetstown Founded 1808 by the 2 Shawnee Brothers Planned to unite many tribes against a growing white population Also a training ground for warriors
Nov 6, 1811 Harrison meets with representatives of The Prophet Agrees that there will be no hostilities until a meeting is arranged the following day Harrison camps about a mile west of Prophetstown on a wooded hill near Burnett's Creek
William Henry Harrison and near 1000 troops hope to drive Indians from the town while Tecumseh was away on a recruitment drive. Battle of Tippecanoe: On November 7, 1811, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers.
V. Prophet convinces followers to attack at dawn warriors from Prophetstown attacked Harrison's army. Although the outnumbered attackers took Harrison's army by surprise, Harrison and his men stood their ground for more than two hours. The Natives were ultimately repulsed when their ammunition ran low. After the battle, the Natives abandoned Prophetstown. Harrison's men burned the town and returned home.
Belligerents Tecumseh's Confederacy Tecumseh's Confederacy Tecumseh's Confederacy United States United States United States Commanders and leaders Tenskwatawa Tenskwatawa William Henry Harrison William Henry Harrison William Henry Harrison Strength 500–700 warriors warriors 250 infantry, 90 cavalry, 700 militia infantrycavalrymilitiainfantrycavalrymilitia Casualties and losses Native Americans 36–50 killed, 70–80 wounded United States 62 killed, 126 wounded