Presentation on theme: "JEFFERSON'S PRESIDENCY"— Presentation transcript:
1JEFFERSON'S PRESIDENCY 1. Jefferson: to 1809VP: Aaron BurrThe Revolution of 1800peaceful transfer of powerJeffersonian Democracy2. Marbury vs. Madison, 1803Midnight appointments of Adams.Chief Justice John MarshallJudicial ReviewPower of Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
23. Jefferson’s Achievements: Secured westward expansionLouisiana PurchaseLewis and Clark4. Defends our neutrality---freedom of the seasBarbary Pirate War—1805France vs BritainChesapeake Affair—1807Embargo Act—1808 to 1809Economic coercion5. Hamilton vs. Burr
3Strict Construction of Constitution JEFFERSON AND CONTRADICTIONSAnti-War and Anti-Navy (Pacifist)Went to war with Barbary Pirates in North AfricaBuilt the “mosquito fleet” of naval shipsAnti-British/Pro-FrenchAlmost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans.Against slaveryOwned 200 slavesStrict Construction of ConstitutionUsed loose construction of Constitution over purchase of Louisiana territoryJefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in a “realistic world”.
4THOMAS JEFFERSON Born in Virginia Graduate of William and Mary College A practicing lawyer and member of Virginia’s House of BurgessesFather of the DOISecretary of State under President WashingtonVice President under AdamsOwned 200 slaves
5AARON BURR Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Born in Newark N.J. Fought with the continental Army in the Revolutionary war.A practicing lawyer in New York City against HamiltonVice President of the United States ( ).Kills Alexander Hamilton in a duelInvolved in the Burr Conspiracy
6ELECTION OF 18001. Election of 1800: The rise of political parties caused flaws in the electoral collegeParties chose their candidates and electors would vote for them2. Led to a tie between Jefferson and Burr----House of Representatives chose Jefferson.3. To eliminate future problems12th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so their would never be a tie.Federalists Democratic Republicans Adams--Pres Jefferson---Pres Hamilton---VP Burr---VP----73
7Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College 73-65. ELECTION OF 1800Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral CollegeProblem: Jefferson & Burr received 73 votes each and both were Democratic-RepublicansTherefore election decided by House of Representatives
8Significance of Election of 1800 REVOLUTION OF 1800John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/RepublicanSignificance of Election of 1800peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another“revolutionary” achievement
9FEDERALIST FINALE Adams was the last Federalist president Jefferson kept most of Federalist policiesFederalist diplomats had signed good treaties with England, Spain, France, and kept US out of war.Federalists preserved democratic gains, while fending off anarchy
10Responsibility › Moderation FEDERALIST FINALEResponsibility › ModerationJefferson integrated democratic principles into presidency, including walking, pell-mell dining, casual dressSet precedent of sending messages to Congress to be read, rather than speaking himselfJefferson dismissed few Federalist appointments, used very little patronage, consistent with conciliatory inaugural addressJefferson as politician used personal charm to sway congressional representatives
11Restraint Helps Revolution FEDERALIST FINALERestraint Helps RevolutionJefferson axed a few Federalist policiesPardoned those convicted under expired Sedition ActReduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 yearsRepealed hated excise taxMade efforts to eliminate debt
12Restraint Helps Revolution FEDERALIST FINALERestraint Helps RevolutionYet Jefferson showed restraint by leaving most of Federalist programDid not attack tariff, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debtHelped 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster
13Jeffersonian democracy Jefferson’s Presidency is considered a transitional period in US History.Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy.Believed National Government became too powerful during Adam’s PresidencyWould try to reduce National Govt. power but actually expands Presidential power.KING GEORGE FEDERALISTS JEFFERSONJeffersonian democracy
14Champion for the common man For now, educated should rule… JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACYMany historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy.Champion for the common manBelieved education would prepare them for participation in government…..For now, educated should rule…Believed National Government became too powerful during Adam’s PresidencyKept most Federalist programs. WHY?Washington/Adams laid a solid foundation for USA.Pardoned those arrested with Sedition ActRepealed the Whiskey taxKept Hamilton’s financial policies—BUSEliminated Alien Act
15Jeffersonian democracy Visualized an agrarian societyFeared industrialization and its effects ….Farmers were the chosen class.Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s livesAgainst BUS but did not repeal it.Owned slaves but believed it was evil….Slavery would end but predicted it would divide U.S…Ultimate goal, Blacks would assimilate into American societyNative Americans, co-existence a long range goal but would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficient…For that time, Indians and whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western landsBelieved education the key to social mobilityJeffersonian democracy
16MARBURY VS MADISONAlthough the Supreme Court, which had a Federalist majority, denied Marbury, also a Federalist, his commission (appointment to become a judge), the Court established a far more principle.THE SUPREME COURT INTERPRETS WHAT THE CONSTITUTION MEANS AND CAN DECLARE A LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL WHICH IS CALLED JUDICIAL REVIEW.THE CONSTITUTION IS THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IS OVER THE STATES.
17Chief Justice John Marshall stated, MARBURY VS MADISONChief Justice John Marshall stated,“The Constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it.If the former part of the alternative be true, then a legislative acting contrary to the constitution is now law; if the latter part be true, then written constitutions are absurd attempts, on the part of the people to limit a power in its own nature illimitable.It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law isIf, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution and no such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they are both applicable”.
18JEFFERSON AND THE PIRATES 1801: Pasha of Tripoli was not happy with his share of dollarsInformally declared war on US.Pacifist Jefferson reluctantly dispatched navy, secured peace for $60,000 ransom for American sailors.
20JEFFERSON AND THE PIRATES Small gunboats used with some success in TripoliJefferson interested in their cost savings.“Mosquito fleet” of 200 small gunboats constructed.War of 1812: these boats would prove to be ineffective.
21New Orleans Under My Wings The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity. (Chicago Historical Society)
22Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America. HAITIAN REVOLUTIONToussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti.Napoleon unable to put down this rebellion which he wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America….Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.
23LOUISIANA PURCHASE1800, France acquired Spanish Louisiana & New OrleansBecause of pressure from the west and national security threats, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from FranceOffered Napoleon $10 million to buy New OrleansIf sale fails, instructed to seek alliance with England
24New Orleans Spanish Land 1800 Great Britain after the Revolution. United States after WarSpanish land after RevolutionNew Orleans
25New Orleans French Land in 1801 Great Britain after the Revolution. United States after WarSpanish landNew Orleans
26LOUISIANA PURCHASESince Napoleon was at war with Great Britain he offered entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 millionNeeded the money for his war with Great BritainJefferson purchased Louisiana Territory for $15 million, about 3 cents an acreDoubled the size of the USJefferson’s greatest accomplishmentWhy? Didn’t fight a war, no blood shed.
27CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution?Jefferson used implied powers or loose construction to justify his decision“It was for the best interest of the nation. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind you; you may disavow me, and I must get out of the scrape as I can: I thought it my duty to risk myself for you.”Madison to Jefferson“Mr. President, you are only extending this republic over a larger area of land.”
28CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution?Hamilton and Federalists were against this purchaseWhy? Population shift take Federalist power away in CongressFeared Jefferson’s vision of an “agrarian society”Jefferson referred to this as his “valley of democracy”
30Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803 Map 7 of 45
31LEWIS AND CLARKSpring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north LouisianaCorp of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark.Exploration yielded maps, knowledge of Indians, overland trail to PacificPresident Jefferson wanted to find the Northwest PassageUnited States’ claim to the Pacific Northwest
32Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark SACAJAWEAInterpreter and guide for Lewis and ClarkHer knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition.She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Many tribes had never seen white men before.Her presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful.
35Angered by an insulting remark attributed to Hamilton, HAMILTON VS BURRAngered by an insulting remark attributed to Hamilton,Burr challenged the Federalist leader to a duel and fatally shot himHamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the enmity of manyembargo1
36Burr planned to win the governorship of New York in 1804. BURR CONSPIRACYSecretly forming a political pact with some radical New England Federalists.Burr planned to win the governorship of New York in 1804.Unite that state with the New England states, and then lead this group of states to secede from the nationMost Federalists followed Alexander Hamilton in opposing Burr, who was defeated in the New York electionThe conspiracy then disintegratedembargo1
37BURR COMMITS TREASONIn 1806, Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and possibly unite it with Louisiana under his ruleJefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treasonA jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr
38FRANCE VS. GREAT BRITAIN Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807): These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports. Orders-in-council British laws which led to the War of Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
39IMPRESSMENTImpressment An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy1806: England closed ports under French control to foreign shipping (incl. US), seized US ships & impressed Americans.Napoleon ordered seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.
40British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered C H E S A P E A K E A F F A I R1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop.British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed
41EMBARGO ACTJefferson’s response to the Chesapeake Affair was the Embargo Act of 1807….Short of war, Jefferson attempted to defend our neutrality by stopping all American exports to the world.
42It would have the reverse effect…… EMBARGO ACTReasoning: Since England and France were at war with one another and traded for most of their natural resources with U.S., if we cut off our exports to them it would force them to respect our neutrality….THIS IS CALLED ECONOMIC COERCION.It would have the reverse effect……The Embargo Act not only hurt France and Britain but it also hurt U.S. trade which was our economic survival as a nation. As a result, many Americans defied the law and began to smuggle goods from these countries as well as others.Hurt American businessesNew Englander’s shift from trade to industryU.S. smuggledNew England talked of secession…..Lasted 15 months, repealed in March of 1809
43EMBARGO ACT American people were hostile towards Jefferson Referred to the Embargo as “Dambargo, Mobrage, Go Bar Em”….Would be replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France and Great Britain……A Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out,“Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him , stretch forth his hands and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall be Conquerors!!!”“Our ships all in motion, Once whiten’d the ocean; They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo; Now doom’d to decay They are fallen a prey, To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.”
44MADISON'S PRESIDENCY, 1809 TO 1817 1. Madison’s attempts at US NeutralityCauses of War of 1812ImpressmentWar HawksTecumsehDefend American neutrality2nd War of Independence: vs. Great BritainMr. Madison’s War---War of 1812Misc. Information and lst’sWar strategyFrancis Scott Key = “National Anthem”British burn White HouseWar heroesWilliam Henry HarrisonAndrew JacksonBattle of New Orleans--1815
453. Outcomes:War----a stalemateTreaty of GhentHartford ConventionWar’s LegacyUS defends it’s neutralityRespect from Europe4. President James Monroe, 1817 to 1825Era of Good FeelingsMonroe Doctrine
46President James Madison Born in Virginia, 1751Enlisted in Continental Army but too smallAttended Princeton University and became a lawyer.Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.Secretary of State during Jefferson’s PresidencyPresident, 1809 to 1817Most known for defending US Neutrality during the War of 1812.President James Madison
47WAR OF 1812Non-Intercourse Act Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2.Macon’s Bill No Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
48WAR OF 1812Dupe of NapoleonAugust, 1810: in response, Napoleon (lying) announced decrees (stop impressing US ships) had been repealedNovember, 1810: Madison announces nonimportation against BritainResults in political ties with FranceMajor foreign policy mistake
49TecumsehTecumseh (Shawnee warrior) & the Prophet (brother) formed union of tribes east of Mississippi to fight white intrusionSupplied by the Britishled Indian cultural renewal1809: General William H. Harrison appointed as governor of Indiana Territory by President Jefferson.President Jefferson instructed Harrison to convince Tecumseh to stop attacking American settlements.
50Did not the Great Spirit make them for the use of his children?” T E C U M S E H VS H A R R I S O N“Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth?Did not the Great Spirit make them for the use of his children?”Tecumseh
51TecumsehTecumseh reflected bitterly on the white man’s treatment of his people.“We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets (jewelry) and death”
52William Henry Harrison T E C U M S E H VS H A R R I S O N“One of those uncommon geniuses who spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established ordered of things.If it were not for the vicinity of the U.S., he would perhaps be the founder of an Empire that would rival in glory that of Mexico.”William Henry Harrison
53War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812. The War of 18122nd War of IndependenceMr. Madison’s WarWar breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.NEXT
54John C. Calhoun South Carolina MR. MADISON'S WARWar of 1812War HawksNew members of Congress, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay want war why Great Britain….Why?U.S. must defend its neutralityStop impressmentBritish fortsTecumsehDesire for Canada and FloridaCalled 2nd War of IndependenceJohn C. Calhoun South CarolinaHenry Clay Kentucky
55Defend our self interest President James Madison MR. MADISON'S WARWar of 1812PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHTDefend our neutralityFreedom of the seasDefend our self interestMadison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US.Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral?President James Madison
56“Mr. Madison’s War” Why Britain, not France? Impressment: destroying US economyBritish fortsArming of Indians (Tecumseh)Desire for CanadaNo respect from BritishWas convinced by the War Hawks that this was a needed war.
57“Mr. Madison’s War”June, 1812: War Hawks engineer declaration of war with England.Unfortunately, Congress was not aware that London repealed impressment policy 2 days prior to warNew England opposed to war but Southern/western states supported the warUS at war vs. most powerful nation, but US dividedPoorly equipped US army initiated military action in by launching a 3-part invasion of CanadaThe British easily repulsed the Americans