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The American Nation Chapter 10 The Age of Jefferson 1801–1816 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,

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Presentation on theme: "The American Nation Chapter 10 The Age of Jefferson 1801–1816 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Nation Chapter 10 The Age of Jefferson 1801–1816 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 The American Nation Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: A Republican Takes Office Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase Section 3: New Threats from Overseas Section 4: The Road to War Chapter 10: The Age of Jefferson 1801–1816 Section 5: The War of 1812

3 Chapter 10, Section 1 A Republican Takes Office How did Jefferson’s presidency reflect a democratic style? What actions did Jefferson take to reduce the power of the federal government? How did Chief Justice John Marshall strengthen the Supreme Court?

4 Chapter 10, Section 1 Jefferson’s Democratic Style Jefferson wanted to make the government more democratic, which means ensuring that all people have the same rights. He made his inauguration a low-key affair instead of a fancy one. He preferred quiet dinners to formal parties. To show that the President was an ordinary citizen, he wore casual clothes and greeted people by shaking hands instead of bowing. He promised that although his party, the Republicans, were in the majority, he would not treat the Federalists harshly. - In his inaugural address, he said, “The minority possess their equal rights, which equal laws must protect.”

5 Chapter 10, Section 1 Jefferson’s Economic Policies Jefferson believed that one way to lessen government power was to reduce the federal budget. - In his view, the Federalists had made the national government too large and too powerful. Jefferson believed in the economic idea known as laissez faire, a policy in which the government plays as small a role as possible in economic affairs. - laissez faire is French for “let alone”. Instead the economy relies on a free market where goods and services are exchanged with little regulation.

6 Chapter 10, Section 1 Jefferson Reduced the Power of the Federal Government Tries to cut federal budget and reduce federal debt Promotes laissez-faire policies in economic affairs Decreases the size of government departments Reduces the size of the army and navy Asks Congress to repeal the whiskey tax Goal: Reduce Size of Government Policies Retains the Bank of the United States Continues to pay off state debts using federal moneys Allows many Federalists to keep their government jobs Goal: Reconcile Party Differences Policies

7 Chapter 10, Section 1 Chief Justice Marshall and the Supreme Court John Adams had appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. - Marshall was a Federalist. Marshall found the courts to be weaker than other branches of government. When William Marbury sued Secretary of State James Madison, the case came before the Supreme Court. - The Judiciary Act of 1789 said the Supreme Court could decide cases against federal officials. - In the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison, Marshall wrote that the Constitution didn’t give the Supreme Court the right to hear such a case, and Congress could not give it the right. Therefore, the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. The decision in Marbury v. Madison set a precedent. It gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review—the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to reject laws that it considered unconstitutional. - Today, judicial review remains one of the most important powers of the Supreme Court.

8 Chapter 10, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment Jefferson believed in a free market, which is a) a grocery store run by ordinary farmers. b) an economy in which goods and services are exchanged with little regulation. c) an economy in which the government works to promote trade and manufacturing. d) an economic situation with high government spending and high government debt. In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice Marshall a) reduced the power of the Supreme Court. b) established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review. c) established the Supreme Court’s power to decide cases against federal officials. d) upheld the Judiciary Act. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

9 Chapter 10, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment Jefferson believed in a free market, which is a) a grocery store run by ordinary farmers. b) an economy in which goods and services are exchanged with little regulation. c) an economy in which the government works to promote trade and manufacturing. d) an economic situation with high government spending and high government debt. In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice Marshall a) reduced the power of the Supreme Court. b) established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review. c) established the Supreme Court’s power to decide cases against federal officials. d) upheld the Judiciary Act. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

10 Chapter 10, Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase Why was control of the Mississippi River important to the United States? How did the United States purchase Louisiana? What were the results of the explorations of Lewis and Clark and of Zebulon Pike?

11 Chapter 10, Section 2 Control of the Mississippi River In 1803, most farmers west of the Appalachians shipped their crops down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. Spain controlled New Orleans and sometimes threatened to close the port. - In the Pinckney Treaty of 1795, Spain agreed to let Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi River to the New Orleans port. In 1800, when Spain gave Louisiana back to France, President Jefferson began to worry that Napoleon, the French ruler, might put an end to the Americans’ using the Mississippi River. To gain control of the port, Jefferson decided he would try to buy New Orleans from France.

12 Chapter 10, Section 2 The United States Buys Louisiana At first, President Jefferson questioned whether or not the President had the power to purchase land. The Constitution did not say anything about this subject, so he questioned whether the purchase would be constitutional or not. In the end, Jefferson decided that he did have the authority to make the purchase. Fortunately, Napoleon needed money to fight his wars in Europe, so he agreed to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the United States, instead of just New Orleans. In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase went into effect. The Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the size of the nation, making it one of Thomas Jefferson’s most important contributions to the United States during his presidency.

13 Chapter 10, Section 2 The Expedition of Lewis and Clark Purpose of the Expedition of Lewis and Clark The Purpose: to map a route across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean - this allowed later travelers to follow accurate maps on their journeys to study the territory’s geography - land, climate, plants, and animals to learn about the Indian nations who lived there The Journey: Lewis and Clark left from St. Louis and crossed the plains by way of the Missouri River. Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, and her husband agreed to accompany the party as translators. They showed Lewis and Clark the best route over the Rocky Mountains. Lewis and Clark crossed the Continental Divide, the high mountain ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite sides of the continent. The return trip back to St. Louis took another year.

14 Chapter 10, Section 2 The Expedition of Zebulon Pike Expedition of Zebulon Pike The Purpose: To learn more about the Southwest by exploring the southern half of the Louisiana Territory. The Journey: From Colorado and New Mexico, Pike entered Spanish territory. Spanish troops arrested Pike and his men and took them into Mexico. The party was later escorted through Texas back to the United States.

15 Chapter 10, Section 2 The Expeditions of Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike

16 Chapter 10, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment Why was control of the Mississippi River important to Americans in the early 1800s? a) Most farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains used the Mississippi River to get their goods to market. b) The Mississippi River was the first step in the journey of Lewis and Clark. c) Toussaint L’Ouverture could attack the French in Haiti from the port of New Orleans. d) Jefferson was interested in the Native Americans who lived along the river. One purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to a) prove that the Louisiana Purchase was constitutional. b) find a route into Spanish territory. c) bring back information about the territory’s geography to be used by later travelers. d) lead settlers into the western lands. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

17 Chapter 10, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment Why was control of the Mississippi River important to Americans in the early 1800s? a) Most farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains used the Mississippi River to get their goods to market. b) The Mississippi River was the first step in the journey of Lewis and Clark. c) Toussaint L’Ouverture could attack the French in Haiti from the port of New Orleans. d) Jefferson was interested in the Native Americans who lived along the river. One purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to a) prove that the Louisiana Purchase was constitutional. b) find a route into Spanish territory. c) bring back information about the territory’s geography to be used by later travelers. d) lead settlers into the western lands. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

18 Chapter 10, Section 3 New Threats From Overseas What were the benefits and risks of overseas trade? How did the British and French violate the neutrality of American ships? Why did Jefferson decide to impose an embargo?

19 Chapter 10, Section 3 Benefits and Risks of Overseas Trade Benefits Yankee traders built up a profitable trade, for example, trade with India, with China, and in the Pacific Northwest Risks One great risk was pirates. Pirates from the Barbary States on the north coast of North Africa attacked vessels in the Mediterranean Sea. To protect American ships, the rulers of those states demanded a yearly tribute, or bribe. When Jefferson refused to pay, one of the Barbary States, Tripoli, declared war on the United States. Jefferson blockaded the port of Tripoli. American marines launched a surprise attack. The ruler of Tripoli agreed not to interfere with American ships.

20 Chapter 10, Section 3 The British and French Violate the Neutrality of American Ships Britain and France went to war again in American merchants traded with both sides. Neither side wanted Americans to trade with the other side. The French seized American ships bound for England. The British seized American ships bound for France. The British also stepped up impressment, the practice of forcing people into service. - They seized young men from English villages and both English and American-born sailors from American ships. Angry Americans called for war.

21 Chapter 10, Section 3 Jefferson and the Embargo Hoping to hurt France and Britain by cutting off supplies, Jefferson proposed an embargo, or ban on trade. He persuaded Congress to pass the Embargo Act, which hurt Britain and France but hurt American farmers and merchants even more. American merchants and farmers protested against the embargo. Some turned to smuggling, importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws. Jefferson used troops to enforce the embargo. Jefferson admitted that the Embargo Act had failed. Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the Nonintercourse Act, which said Americans could trade with all nations except Britain and France.

22 Chapter 10, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment In the early 1800s, Britain ignored American claims of neutrality by stopping American ships and a) forcing the Americans to pay tribute. b) seizing French sailors. c) seizing American sailors. d) buying supplies right off the ships. To hurt Britain and France so they would leave American ships alone, Jefferson tried an embargo, which means a) violating trade laws. b) banning trade. c) stocking up on imports. d) protesting loudly against trade laws. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.

23 Chapter 10, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment In the early 1800s, Britain ignored American claims of neutrality by stopping American ships and a) forcing the Americans to pay tribute. b) seizing French sailors. c) seizing American sailors. d) buying supplies right off the ships. To hurt Britain and France so they would leave American ships alone, Jefferson tried an embargo, which means a) violating trade laws. b) banning trade. c) stocking up on imports. d) protesting loudly against trade laws. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.Click here.


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