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The US and Europe “Stuck in the Middle Again”. After colonial settlements were established, North America became the subject of competition between European.

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Presentation on theme: "The US and Europe “Stuck in the Middle Again”. After colonial settlements were established, North America became the subject of competition between European."— Presentation transcript:

1 The US and Europe “Stuck in the Middle Again”

2 After colonial settlements were established, North America became the subject of competition between European powers for at least 200 years.

3 During the period , Britain and France were almost always at war. The US found itself caught between the two warring nations. The European view: Either you’re with us or you’re against us.

4 The French Revolution Began in 1789 as an uprising against the monarchy Began in 1789 as an uprising against the monarchy Became increasingly bloody Became increasingly bloody By 1793, the guillotine was working overtime and France was at war with the rest of Europe. By 1793, the guillotine was working overtime and France was at war with the rest of Europe. The US finds itself stuck in the middle The US finds itself stuck in the middle

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6 Washington Declares Neutrality 1793: Washington sees no good reason why the US should enter the war on behalf of either Britain or France. 1793: Washington sees no good reason why the US should enter the war on behalf of either Britain or France. Federalists tend to prefer the British, while Jeffersonians prefer the French. Federalists tend to prefer the British, while Jeffersonians prefer the French.

7 British Reaction Britain did not respect American neutrality Britain did not respect American neutrality Impressment Impressment Ship seizure Ship seizure Frontier troubles Frontier troubles

8 Jay’s Treaty Wikipedia: The British agreed to vacate the western forts, and to compensate American ship owners. In return, the British got most-favored-nation trading status from the Americans. The British refused to give any more concessions, however, unless the United States provided compensation for the vast amounts of Loyalist property seized after the revolution. The British also refused to allow trade between the U.S. and the Caribbean. Wikipedia: The British agreed to vacate the western forts, and to compensate American ship owners. In return, the British got most-favored-nation trading status from the Americans. The British refused to give any more concessions, however, unless the United States provided compensation for the vast amounts of Loyalist property seized after the revolution. The British also refused to allow trade between the U.S. and the Caribbean.

9 The French Respond While Jay’s Treaty was quite weak, it was enough to anger the French. While Jay’s Treaty was quite weak, it was enough to anger the French. The French felt that this US deal with Britain was a violation of the Franco- American Alliance of The French felt that this US deal with Britain was a violation of the Franco- American Alliance of French ships began to seize hundreds of American merchant ships. French ships began to seize hundreds of American merchant ships.

10 XYZ Affair John Adams felt stuck in the middle again. His party wanted war with France, but he wanted to follow Washington’s neutrality policy. John Adams felt stuck in the middle again. His party wanted war with France, but he wanted to follow Washington’s neutrality policy. Adams sent 3 negotiators to France. The French refused to meet with the Americans unless they were granted a loan and a bribe. Adams sent 3 negotiators to France. The French refused to meet with the Americans unless they were granted a loan and a bribe. Americans were outraged Americans were outraged

11 Quasi War with France From the US fought an undeclared naval war with France. This mostly amounted to seizing each others’ ships. From the US fought an undeclared naval war with France. This mostly amounted to seizing each others’ ships. Adams never gave in to the pressure for a full war with France. Adams never gave in to the pressure for a full war with France.

12 From Revolution to Dictator Napoleon Bonaparte became the revolutionary leader of France from and then became the Emperor. Napoleon Bonaparte became the revolutionary leader of France from and then became the Emperor. Europe continued to be at war. Europe continued to be at war.

13 Stuck in the Middle Again As war continued to rage, the US remained at odds with Britain and France—neither nation respecting US neutrality. As war continued to rage, the US remained at odds with Britain and France—neither nation respecting US neutrality.

14 The Embargo President Jefferson and congress responded by prohibiting all US exports in President Jefferson and congress responded by prohibiting all US exports in This failed to persuade the Europeans to respect American neutrality. This failed to persuade the Europeans to respect American neutrality.

15 Non-Intercourse Act In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act reopened the US to trade with all nations EXCEPT France & Britain. Still...the US ships were seized by both the British and French navies. In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act reopened the US to trade with all nations EXCEPT France & Britain. Still...the US ships were seized by both the British and French navies.

16 Macon’s Bill Number 2 Congress finally restored trade with all nations in However, if either Britain or France stopped interfering with American trade, the US would restore the embargo against the other nation. Congress finally restored trade with all nations in However, if either Britain or France stopped interfering with American trade, the US would restore the embargo against the other nation. President Madison accepted an ambiguous offer by the French to stop seizing American ships and the US restored the embargo against Britain. Leading to… President Madison accepted an ambiguous offer by the French to stop seizing American ships and the US restored the embargo against Britain. Leading to…

17 War of 1812 Eventually, after years of hostility war between the US and Britain finally reignited in Eventually, after years of hostility war between the US and Britain finally reignited in After nearly 20 years of trying to maintain its neutrality the US was finally drawn into a full war with a European Power. After nearly 20 years of trying to maintain its neutrality the US was finally drawn into a full war with a European Power.

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