Presentation on theme: "Why do they Hate US? Westernization –Imperialism US overthrew Iranian elected prime minister in 1952 and replaced him w/ a king –Cultural Imperialism –economic."— Presentation transcript:
Why do they Hate US? Westernization –Imperialism US overthrew Iranian elected prime minister in 1952 and replaced him w/ a king –Cultural Imperialism –economic imperialism OIL Iraqi sanctions/embargo (1990-2002) –over 1 million dead »half of them under 5 yrs Support of Israel –$3 billion a year –uses $ to fight Palestinians Support Saudi Arabia –continued military bases Good vs. Evil
Why use terrorism? Guerilla Warfare –Desire to wound a more powerful foe. –You may be more powerful, but you can still bleed The higher the target’s profile, the better. –American Embassies in Africa (Aug. 1988) –World Trade Center (1993 & 2001) Military targets –Beirut, Lebanon (1983) 241 Marines killed –Pentagon –US naval ships (USS COLE in Oct. 2000) About sending a message!!
JIHAD – Holy War??! –Terrorism: Uses violence to achieve a political or religious end –Terrorist: Someone who performs acts of terrorism. –State Sponsored v. groups/individuals –Jihad: “Striving or Struggling in the Way of God” (Muslims should try to strive to know and do the will of God) Greater Jihad: Struggle with yourself to do what is right. Lesser Jihad: Outward defense of Islam.
History of Islamic Fundamentalism Muslim movement against westernization and secularism that supports a return to the values of the Quran 1928: Muslim Brotherhood –Egypt –Hassan al-Banna –http://i-cias.com/e.o/mus_br_egypt.htmhttp://i-cias.com/e.o/mus_br_egypt.htm Why hatred toward USA? –1952-’79: Iran –1979-’89: Afghanistan ’88: AL-QAEDA founded –1991: Iraq invades Kuwait US forces sent to Saudi Arabia –Support of Israel
Anti-Israel Islamic Fundamentalist Groups Goal: the destruction o/t state of Israel –Reside in West Bank & Gaza –Build schools, clinics, roads, etc –Political parties HAMAS: Islamic Resistance Movement –Leading political party in Gaza Strip –Sunni Islamic Jihad: –Sunni Hizbullah: Party of God –Southern Lebanon –Shiite Muslims
CAUSES OF THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION (1979) ’53: US-CIA w/UK overthrew democratically elected Mu. Mossedegh Shah was SECULAR –Westernization –Social programs failed Opposed to Iran/US alliance Corrupt gov’t SAVAK: Iran’s secret police oppressed opposition
EFFECTS OF IRANIAN REVOLTION led by Ayatollah Khomeini –Theocracy created –Shariah law implemented –Muslim traditions enforced Nationalized all foreign owned businesses & OIL Iran-Iraq War ’80-’88 Shah of Iran fled to US –American Embassy seized 52 Americans taken hostage crisis lasted 444 days
SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN (1979-89) Communist gov’t comes to power in Afghanistan –Cold War tensions arise –Soviet’s support new gov’t thus invade US supports Afghan rebels –supplied STINGER missiles –trained Afghan rebels in Pakistan mujahedeen: holy warriors –Osama bin-Laden becomes Al-Qaeda Civil war begins btwn opposing Afghan groups –Taliban are the victors
IRAN-IRAQ WAR (1980-88) CAUSES 1980: Iraq invaded Iran seized the Shatt al- Arab waterway –key access to the Persian Gulf attempt to end Iranian support of Shiite Muslims that live in southern Iraq EFFECTS Over a million killed mined t/ Persian Gulf Tanker Wars economic collapse no winner
PERSIAN GULF WAR (1991) CAUSES Iraq in debt due to Iran-Iraq War 2 Aug 90: Iraq invaded Kuwait –claims Kuwait as province of Iraq access to oil fields greater ACCESS t/t Persian Gulf EFFECTS US/UN led COALITION DESERT STORM trade embargo against Iraq –in place until US invasion ‘03 bombing campaign –@ 100,000 Iraqi soldiers killed Iraq sends SCUD missiles against Israel Iraq easily defeated –retreating soldiers set fires to Kuwaiti oil wells Continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia Persian Gulf sits atop the world’s largest known oil reserve.
“Those that are willing to give up their liberties for temporary security, deserve neither.” Benjamin Franklin
Islamic Fundamentalism: What should we do about it?? Remove all American military forces from the Arabian Peninsula. Remain in Iraq to develop democracy as a model for other Muslim countries. Pressure Muslim countries to close religious schools that preach hatred. Provide foreign aid to Muslim countries in order to reduce unemployment and poverty. Give foreign aid to countries that curb Islamists. Work to achieve security and justice for Israel and Palestine. Capture, try, and (if convicted) execute Osama bin- Laden. Lessen our dependence on MidEast oil. How to deal w/ the Causes?? Effects??