2Directions Click the indicated icon to begin the slide show Press the right arrow key on the keyboard once to reveal the answerPress the right arrow key once more to advance to the next question
3Table of Contents 26th Amendment New Federalism Title IX Reaganomics / Supply Side EconomicsStrategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)Star WarsDétenteTinker v. Des Moines (1969)WatergateNew Jersey v. TLO (1985)United States v. Nixon (1974)Affirmative ActionThe Pentagon PapersRegents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)Three Mile IslandCamp David AccordsSunbeltIran Hostage CrisisEnergy CrisisOil Embargo
426th AmendmentThe ratification of the 26th amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, was a result of the (1) participation of the United States in the Vietnam War (2) fear of McCarthyism (3) reaction to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union (4) reporting of the Watergate scandal
5Title IXThe data included in the table suggest that since 1971 (1) boys are losing interest in participating in sports (2) participation in sports by boys and girls is nearly equal (3) girls’ participation in sports equals that of boys (4) girls’ participation in sports is increasing at a faster rate than that of boys
6Title IXWhich development contributed most to the changes shown in the table? (1) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (2) inclusion of Title IX in the Education Amendments of 1972 (3) the beginning of Head Start programs in the 1960s (4) increase in the number of nonpublic schools since the 1970s
7Title IX“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, . . .” — Title IX, 1972 The passage of this law affected women across the nation by (1) granting them the right to own property (2) guaranteeing them the same wages as male workers (3) increasing their opportunities to participate in school sports (4) allowing them the right to seek elective offices
8Title IXThe Equal Pay Act, the Title IX education amendment, and the proposed Equal Rights amendment (ERA) were primarily efforts to improve the status of (1) African Americans (2) Native American Indians (3) migrant workers (4) women
9Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT),signed by President Richard Nixon with theSoviet Union, was an effort to advance theforeign policy ofdétente(2) imperialism(3) brinkmanship(4) globalization
10Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) Which United States foreign policy decision most clearly reflects the relationship shown in the cartoon? (1) issuance of the Eisenhower Doctrine (2) quarantine of Cuba (3) support of Israel in the Six Day War (4) negotiation of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
11DétentePresident Richard Nixon’s policy of détente is best characterized by his (1) decision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States (2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union (3) order to bomb Cambodia (4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries
12DétenteThe policy of détente was used by President Richard Nixon in an effort to (1) decrease tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States (2) improve relations with Latin America (3) promote democratic government in China (4) create stronger ties with Western Europe
13DétenteThe Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT), signed by President Richard Nixon with the Soviet Union, was an effort to advance the foreign policy ofdétente(2) imperialism(3) brinkmanship(4) globalization
14DétenteA main goal of President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente was to (1) sponsor free elections in North and South Korea (2) reduce tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union (3) negotiate an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict (4) build support for recognition of the Nationalist government of Taiwan
15DétenteThe policy of détente pursued by President Richard Nixon was an effort to (1) increase foreign aid to African nations (2) maintain access to East Asian markets (3) reduce conflict with the Soviet Union (4) end trade barriers among Western Hemisphere nations
16DétenteThe United States policy of détente can best be described as an effort to (1) reduce tensions with the Soviet Union (2) negotiate peace agreements with North Korea (3) halt the arms race with China (4) end an embargo against Cuba
17DétentePresident Richard Nixon’s foreign policy of détente was an attempt to (1) resolve Middle East conflicts (2) improve relations with the Soviet Union (3) defend United States interests in Latin America (4) increase the power of the United Nations Security Council
18Détente The cartoonist is commenting on which Cold War foreign policy? (2) brinkmanship(3) the domino theory(4) collective security
19DétenteThe primary purpose of President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente was to (1) expand United States military involvement in Southeast Asia (2) assure an adequate supply of oil from the Middle East (3) ease tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union (4) maintain a favorable balance of trade with China
20Détente Which term is most commonly used to describe President Richard Nixon’s foreign policy towardthe Soviet Union?collective security(2) brinkmanship(3) détente(4) neutrality
21DétenteThe main goal of President Richard Nixon’s foreign policy of détente was to (1) assure American victory in Vietnam (2) resolve conflicts in the Middle East (3) abolish the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (4) improve relations with the Soviet Union
22WatergateThe terms Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Iran- Contra are most closely associated with (1) domestic policies (2) presidential scandals (3) federal court decisions (4) failed reform movements
23WatergateWhich event led to this letter being written? (1) Teapot Dome scandal (2) Kent State shootings (3) Iran-Contra affair (4) Watergate break-in
24WatergatePresident Richard Nixon’s decision to resign from the presidency in 1974 was based primarily on (1) developments in the Watergate investigation (2) backlash from his policies toward China and the Soviet Union (3) protests against his secret military actions during the Vietnam War (4) accusations of trading arms for hostages
25WatergateWhich action did President Gerald Ford take in an attempt to end the national controversy over the Watergate affair? (1) pardoning Richard Nixon (2) declaring a war on poverty (3) declining to run for reelection (4) asking Congress to impeach Richard Nixon
26WatergateThe cartoon is most closely associated with the controversy over the (1) Watergate affair (2) war on drugs (3) Arab-Israeli conflict (4) Iran hostage crisis
27WatergateA major effect of the Watergate scandal of the 1970s was that it (1) led to the Arab oil embargo (2) reduced people’s trust in government (3) resulted in term limits for elected officials (4) increased presidential power
28WatergateThe conflict that was the focus of the cartoon involved President Richard Nixon’s attempt to (1) increase the number of troops in Vietnam (2) withhold evidence in the Watergate scandal (3) impose mandatory wage and price controls (4) improve relations with the People’s Republic of China
29WatergateThe cartoon illustrates the constitutional principle of (1) federalism (2) checks and balances (3) representative government (4) civilian control of the military
30WatergateWhich statement best describes an impact of the Watergate scandal on American society? (1) The modern environmental movement began. (2) Public trust in government declined. (3) Voter turnout in elections increased. (4) An economic recession ended.
31United States v. Nixon (1974) The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States (1) has unlimited use of the veto power (2) is protected from unfair media criticism (3) may not be convicted of a crime (4) is not above the law
32United States v. Nixon (1974) The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Nixon (1974) was significant because it directly (1) increased the power of the legislative branch (2) showed that the Court controlled the executive branch (3) limited the president’s power of executive privilege (4) weakened the principle of federalism
33United States v. Nixon (1974) The conflict that was the focus of the cartoon involved President Richard Nixon’s attempt to (1) increase the number of troops in Vietnam (2) withhold evidence in the Watergate scandal (3) impose mandatory wage and price controls (4) improve relations with the People’s Republic of China
34United States v. Nixon (1974) The cartoon illustrates the constitutional principle of (1) federalism (2) checks and balances (3) representative government (4) civilian control of the military
35The Pentagon PapersSo far this term has appeared only as a wrong answer choice in the multiple choice portion of the exam. The Pentagon Papers: Papers that contain a history of the U.S. role in Indochina (includes Vietnam) from World War II until May 1968 and that were commissioned in 1967 by U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara. They were turned over (without authorization) to The New York Times by Daniel Ellsberg, a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Center for International Studies.
36Three Mile IslandSo far this term has not shown up on the multiple choice of an exam. Three Mile Island: a partial nuclear meltdown which occurred in one of the two Three Mile Island nuclear reactors in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States, on March 28, It was the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. The incident was rated a five on the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale: Accident With Wider Consequences.
37Camp David AccordsWhich foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East? (1) Kellogg-Briand Pact (2) Yalta Conference declaration (3) SALT I Treaty (4) Camp David Accords
38Camp David AccordsWhich action was a major foreign policy achievement of President Jimmy Carter? (1) settling the Suez crisis (2) withdrawing the United States from the Vietnam War (3) establishing improved relations with Iran (4) mediating the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel
39Camp David Accords“President Wilson Represents the United States at Versailles” “President Reagan Meets with Soviet President Gorbachev” “President Carter Negotiates Camp David Accords” Each headline illustrates a time when the president of the United States acted as (1) chief diplomat (2) chief legislator (3) commander in chief (4) head of a political party
40Camp David AccordsThe Camp David Accords negotiated by President Jimmy Carter were important because they (1) reduced tensions in the Middle East (2) renewed diplomatic relations between the United States and China (3) slowed the pace of the nuclear arms race (4) provided for cooperation with the Soviet Union in the exploration of outer space
41Camp David AccordsIn the Camp David Accords (1978), President Jimmy Carter succeeded in (1) returning the Panama Canal Zone to Panama (2) suspending grain sales to the Soviet Union and China (3) providing a foundation for a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel (4) freeing hostages being held in Iran
42Camp David AccordsThe Camp David Accords and the Persian Gulf War both show the desire of the United States to (1) create stability in the Middle East (2) expand trade with Asian nations (3) maintain friendly relations with Europe (4) provide economic stability in Latin America
43Iran Hostage CrisisSo far this term has only appeared as an incorrect answer choice in the multiple choice section of the exam. Iran Hostage Crisis: The Iran hostage crisis, referred to in Persian as تسخیر لانه جاسوسی امریکا (literally "Conquest of the American Spy Den,"), was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days (November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981), after a group of Iranian students supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the US Embassy in Tehran. President Carter called the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy," adding that "the United States will not yield to blackmail.“ The crisis was described by the western media as an entanglement of "vengeance and mutual incomprehension." In Iran, the hostage taking was widely seen as a blow against the United States and its influence in Iran, its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution, and its longstanding support of the recently overthrown Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
44Energy Crisis“. . . Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the President and the Congress to govern. This difficult effort will be the ‘moral equivalent of war’— except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy ” — President Jimmy Carter Address to the Nation, April 18, 1977 President Carter put these ideas into practice by (1) halting construction of nuclear power plants (2) increasing imports of foreign oil (3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources (4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum products
45Energy CrisisWhich situation in the 1970s caused the United States to reconsider its dependence on foreign energy resources? (1) war in Afghanistan (2) oil embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (3) meetings with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons (4) free-trade agreements with Canada and Mexico
46Oil EmbargoWhich situation in the 1970s caused the United States to reconsider its dependence on foreign energy resources? (1) war in Afghanistan (2) oil embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (3) meetings with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons (4) free-trade agreements with Canada and Mexico
47New FederalismSo far this term has not appeared in a multiple choice question. New Federalism: Refers to the return of powers to the states that had been taken by the federal government during President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal.
48Reaganomics / Supply Side Economics President Ronald Reagan used the concept of supply-side economics when he proposed (1) reducing income taxes to stimulate growth (2) providing direct payments to people living in poverty (3) creating government jobs to keep people working (4) increasing regulations on business to promote competition
49Reaganomics / Supply Side Economics President Ronald Reagan’s supply-side economic policy was successful in (1) increasing government spending on social programs (2) lowering tax rates on personal and business income (3) reducing defense spending (4) enforcing stricter environmental regulations
50Reaganomics / Supply Side Economics Which heading best completes the partial outline below? (1) Social Reforms (2) Constitutional Amendments (3) Economic Policies (4) Religious Beliefs
51Star WarsSo far this term has not appeared in the multiple choice potion of an exam. Star Wars: This term refers to President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). This was a plan to use ground based and space based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The plan was criticized as unrealistic and unscientific and the idea was eventually scrapped.
52Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)Which category most accurately completes the heading for the partial outline below? (1) Right to Counsel (2) Student Rights (3) School Integration (4) Federal Funding of Education
53Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Tinker v. Des Moines and New York Times Co. v. United States were based on interpretations of the (1) meaning of a republican form of government (2) powers delegated specifically to Congress (3) president’s right to executive privilege (4) rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment
54Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)In the Supreme Court cases New Jersey v. T.L.O. and Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the Court ruled that (1) individual student rights are more important than a safe school environment (2) students can be expelled from school without a hearing (3) civil liberties can be both protected and limited in schools (4) the Bill of Rights does not apply to minors
55New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)Which category most accurately completes the heading for the partial outline below? (1) Right to Counsel (2) Student Rights (3) School Integration (4) Federal Funding of Education
56New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)The Supreme Court decisions in New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) and Vernonia School District v. Acton (1995) show that (1) a student’s right to privacy is limited under certain conditions (2) prayer in public schools must be limited (3) racially segregated schools are unconstitutional (4) a student has no guaranteed rights while in school
57New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)In the Supreme Court cases New Jersey v. T.L.O. and Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the Court ruled that (1) individual student rights are more important than a safe school environment (2) students can be expelled from school without a hearing (3) civil liberties can be both protected and limited in schools (4) the Bill of Rights does not apply to minors
58Affirmative Action The program that promotes preference in hiring for African Americans and other minorities tocorrect past injustices is known asTitle IX(2) open admissions(3) affirmative action(4) Head Start
59Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) So far this term has not appeared in a multiple choice question. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978): a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students by the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, were impermissible.
60SunbeltSo far this term has not appeared in a multiple choice question. Sunbelt: a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States). Another rough boundary of the region is the area south of the 36th parallel, north latitude. The main defining feature of the Sun Belt is its warm climate with extended summers and brief, relatively mild winters.