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Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls.

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Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency

3 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why? Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why? He hates Burr more than Jefferson! He hates Burr more than Jefferson! Thomas Jefferson became our 3 rd president Thomas Jefferson became our 3 rd president The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress The Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution The Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution Pres and VP run as a ticket Pres and VP run as a ticket "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." (Appealing to both Parties) "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." (Appealing to both Parties)

4 Election of 1800 Referred to as constituting “another revolution” Referred to as constituting “another revolution” the party in power (Federalist) stepped down after losing the election the party in power (Federalist) stepped down after losing the election Changes made by Jefferson Changes made by Jefferson Size of the military reduced (Why?) Size of the military reduced (Why?) Number of Federal employees increased Number of Federal employees increased Amount of national debt reduced Amount of national debt reduced Alien and Sedition Acts repealed (Why?) Alien and Sedition Acts repealed (Why?) Lowered Government Expenses, Cut Taxes Lowered Government Expenses, Cut Taxes Increased the power of Agricultural in the South. Increased the power of Agricultural in the South. Free Trade w/o Government Control Free Trade w/o Government Control Reduced the size of the National Bank (Why?) Reduced the size of the National Bank (Why?)

5 Judiciary Act 1801 Increases the Number of Federal Judges to 16. Increases the Number of Federal Judges to 16.

6 The Midnight Judges John Adams filled all open positions with Federalist Judges! John Adams filled all open positions with Federalist Judges! Adams appoints one right before Jefferson takes office. (Why?) Hence the midnight judge. Adams appoints one right before Jefferson takes office. (Why?) Hence the midnight judge. This causes some problems for the Supreme Court… Stay tuned! This causes some problems for the Supreme Court… Stay tuned!

7 Marbury Vs. Madison (1803) William Marbury – A Supreme court judge appointed by Adams on his last night of Office. William Marbury – A Supreme court judge appointed by Adams on his last night of Office. Jefferson ordered the Secretary of state (James Madison) not to deliver the official papers to Marbury the next day. Jefferson ordered the Secretary of state (James Madison) not to deliver the official papers to Marbury the next day. Marbury Sued Madison over this matter. Marbury Sued Madison over this matter. What does the Supreme court do? Does Marbury win? Take a guess in your notes! What does the Supreme court do? Does Marbury win? Take a guess in your notes!

8 Marbury Vs. Madison Continued Supreme court rules against Marbury! Supreme court rules against Marbury! Why? Why? Jefferson was going to ignore the appointment & therefore ignore the supreme court. Jefferson was going to ignore the appointment & therefore ignore the supreme court. So…The Supreme Court protects their power keeping judicial review. So…The Supreme Court protects their power keeping judicial review. Judicial Review- Gives the SC the power to decide which laws are Constitutional. Judicial Review- Gives the SC the power to decide which laws are Constitutional. Now Write in your own words! Now Write in your own words!

9 Hamilton Vs. Burr Duel (1804) When two gentleman cannot settle an argument and ones honor is in question they use Pistols to settled it. Duel (1804) When two gentleman cannot settle an argument and ones honor is in question they use Pistols to settled it. Hamilton Supported Burr’s Opponent in the New York Governors race. Hamilton Supported Burr’s Opponent in the New York Governors race. Burr Challenges Hamilton and Kills him. Burr Challenges Hamilton and Kills him. Hamilton Never fires a shot. Hamilton Never fires a shot.

10 Hamilton vs. Burr

11 TOUSSAINT L’ OUVERTURE LEADS A SLAVE REVOLT AGAINST THE FRENCH LEADS A SLAVE REVOLT AGAINST THE FRENCH NAPOLEON SENDS 20,000 TROOPS NAPOLEON SENDS 20,000 TROOPS YELLOW FEVER AND L’OUVERTURE’S ARMY DEFEAT THE FRENCH YELLOW FEVER AND L’OUVERTURE’S ARMY DEFEAT THE FRENCH Slaves earn their freedom in France! Unfortunately Takes longer in the US! Slaves earn their freedom in France! Unfortunately Takes longer in the US! Because of trouble in France Napoleon needs Money and Allies! Which leeds to….? Because of trouble in France Napoleon needs Money and Allies! Which leeds to….?

12 TOUSSAINT L’ OUVERTURE

13 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to Give the United States control over the Mississippi River Give the United States control over the Mississippi River Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops Hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generations Hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generations To prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce To prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce

14 JEFFERSON WANTS NEW ORLEANS JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS. JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS. THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION

15 Louisiana Purchase April 30, 1803 April 30, 1803 Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre The United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acre The purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States The purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States July 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced July 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced Original treaty can be found at: riginals_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty.html

16 MORE… IF THE FRENCH REFUSE, MONROE IS TO FORM AN ALLIANCE WITH BRITAIN AGAINST FRANCE. IF THE FRENCH REFUSE, MONROE IS TO FORM AN ALLIANCE WITH BRITAIN AGAINST FRANCE.

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18 Maps of the Louisiana Purchase The original maps can be found at:

19 JEFFERSON’S PRINCIPLES GET IN THE WAY. JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST. JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST. MUST USE IMPLIED POWERS TO JUSTIFY THE DEAL. MUST USE IMPLIED POWERS TO JUSTIFY THE DEAL. FEDERALIST ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION. FEDERALIST ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION.

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21 Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803 January 18, 1803 Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the Mississippi His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific May 1804 May 1804 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expedition Map of Lewis and Clark’s Route Original map can be found at:

22 Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803 January 18, 1803 Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians

23 LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION ASCEND THE MISSOURI RIVER AND CROSS TO THE PACIFIC ASCEND THE MISSOURI RIVER AND CROSS TO THE PACIFIC SURVEY THE AREA AND ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH THE INDIANS SURVEY THE AREA AND ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH THE INDIANS

24 Embargo Act 1807 Forbade export of all goods from U.S. Jefferson got Congress to hastily pass the act Jefferson got Congress to hastily pass the act Reasoned that a U.S. embargo would force Britain & France to respect its rights. Reasoned that a U.S. embargo would force Britain & France to respect its rights. Loose construction of the Constitution Loose construction of the Constitution Congress' power to "regulate commerce" meant it could stop exports. Congress' power to "regulate commerce" meant it could stop exports. Undermined Jefferson’s states’ rights philosophy Undermined Jefferson’s states’ rights philosophy Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy. Why? We need foreign business more than they do. Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy. Why? We need foreign business more than they do. Non Intercourse Act (ended Embargo Act) Non Intercourse Act (ended Embargo Act) Formally reopened trade with all nations of the world except France and Britain Formally reopened trade with all nations of the world except France and Britain Remained U.S. policy until War of Remained U.S. policy until War of 1812.

25 JEFFERSON VS THE PASHA OF TRIPOLI JEFFERSON OPPOSED LARGE ARMIES AND NAVIES JEFFERSON OPPOSED LARGE ARMIES AND NAVIES A THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENT A THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENT Barbary Pirates take bribe money from US ships so that they don’t take their cargo. Barbary Pirates take bribe money from US ships so that they don’t take their cargo. Pirates demands increase Pirates demands increase Jefferson won’t pay them, and tries to over through the gov’t of Tripoli but does not succeed. Jefferson won’t pay them, and tries to over through the gov’t of Tripoli but does not succeed. Jefferson realizes that with out a real military our nation is at risk. Jefferson realizes that with out a real military our nation is at risk. AND EXPENSIVE AND EXPENSIVE Because of the failed gov’t over through we pay $60,000 in ransom. Because of the failed gov’t over through we pay $60,000 in ransom.

26 Evaluating Jefferson Positives Expands the size of the United States. “Louisiana Purchase” Expands the size of the United States. “Louisiana Purchase” Keeps US out of a costly war Keeps US out of a costly war Preserves neutrality Preserves neutrality Negatives Contradicts his own interpretation of the constitution. ~ Why? for the good of the country

27 JEFFERSON’S NAVAL POLICY LEADS TO WEAKNESS. JEFFS ARE TOO SMALL TO BE USEFUL JEFFS ARE TOO SMALL TO BE USEFUL WHEN THE WAR OF 1812 COMES WE MUST BUILD REAL SHIPS TO CONTEND WITH THE BRITISH. WHEN THE WAR OF 1812 COMES WE MUST BUILD REAL SHIPS TO CONTEND WITH THE BRITISH.

28 1801 PASHA DECLARES WAR ON U.S. HOW WOULD JEFFERSON RESPOND? HOW WOULD JEFFERSON RESPOND? SENDS MARINES TO THE “SHORES OF TRIPOLI” SENDS MARINES TO THE “SHORES OF TRIPOLI” 1805 WAR ENDS - WE PAY $60,000 IN RANSOM WAR ENDS - WE PAY $60,000 IN RANSOM. BUT SHOWED WE WOULD FIGHT. BUT SHOWED WE WOULD FIGHT.

29 MORE… 2500 MEN IN THE ARMY 2500 MEN IN THE ARMY BUILT “JEFFS” TO DEFEND THE COAST. SMALL BOATS W 1 GUN. BUILT “JEFFS” TO DEFEND THE COAST. SMALL BOATS W 1 GUN.

30 Louisiana Purchase cont’ Bought the land from Napoleon Bought the land from Napoleon $15 million $15 million As a strict constructionist, the Constitution did not authorize the President to negotiate treaties incorporating huge new expanses of land into the union. As a strict constructionist, the Constitution did not authorize the President to negotiate treaties incorporating huge new expanses of land into the union.

31 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IN 1800 NAPOLEON GAINS CONTROL OF NEW ORLEANS FROM SPAIN. IN 1800 NAPOLEON GAINS CONTROL OF NEW ORLEANS FROM SPAIN. WITHDRAWS THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN1802 WITHDRAWS THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN1802

32 NAPOLEON OFFERS TO SELL ALL OF LOUISIANA PRICE $15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR ALL THE LAND BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI & THE ROCKY MTS. PRICE $15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR ALL THE LAND BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI & THE ROCKY MTS. LIVINGSTON SIGNS THE DEAL APRIL 30, 1803 LIVINGSTON SIGNS THE DEAL APRIL 30, ,000 SQ MILES (3CENTS AN ACRE. 828,000 SQ MILES (3CENTS AN ACRE.

33 Louisiana Yet Again Jefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to the Senate while privately admitting the purchase as unconstitutional. Jefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to the Senate while privately admitting the purchase as unconstitutional. Senate promptly ratified the treaty Senate promptly ratified the treaty Land-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the purchase Land-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the purchase Federalist opposition (typical of "loyal opposition" up to the present) Federalist opposition (typical of "loyal opposition" up to the present) Ironically argued for strict construction: President did not have power to purchase LA. Ironically argued for strict construction: President did not have power to purchase LA. Ironically claimed LA would cost too much especially when balancing budget was a goal Ironically claimed LA would cost too much especially when balancing budget was a goal Real reason: worried that western lands would be loyal to Jefferson’s Republicans.. Real reason: worried that western lands would be loyal to Jefferson’s Republicans..

34 Jefferson’s Legacy Expansion became prime goal Expansion became prime goal Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic government Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic government Total defeat of Federalists by 1816 Total defeat of Federalists by 1816 Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging European war Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging European war War of 1812 not until late in Madison’s first term. War of 1812 not until late in Madison’s first term.

35 CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEAL DOUBLED THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES. DOUBLED THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES. GAINED A RICH RIVER VALLEY GAINED A RICH RIVER VALLEY SECURED NEW ORLEANS AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. SECURED NEW ORLEANS AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. JEFFERSON CALLED IT “THE VALLEY OF DEMOCRACY.” JEFFERSON CALLED IT “THE VALLEY OF DEMOCRACY.”

36 JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY 1801 TO 1809

37 9. Zebulon Pike Zebulon Pike also explores the western territory. Zebulon Pike also explores the western territory. Pike reaches the Colorado area and finds the mountain which now bears his name: Pike’s Peak. Pike reaches the Colorado area and finds the mountain which now bears his name: Pike’s Peak. Pike then moves south into the Spanish territories which eventually become Texas and Mexico. Pike then moves south into the Spanish territories which eventually become Texas and Mexico.

38 10. Jefferson’s Reelection By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned success as a President. He was easily reelected. By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned success as a President. He was easily reelected. Burr decided to run for governor of New York. Hamilton criticized Burr; Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel; Burr shoots and kills Hamilton. Burr’s term as Vice President was not quite over at the time of the duel. Burr decided to run for governor of New York. Hamilton criticized Burr; Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel; Burr shoots and kills Hamilton. Burr’s term as Vice President was not quite over at the time of the duel.

39 11. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in the Mediterranean Sea demand tribute from U.S. trade ships. Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in the Mediterranean Sea demand tribute from U.S. trade ships. Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare war on the U.S. The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare war on the U.S. Jefferson does not want to fight; instead, he orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli. Jefferson does not want to fight; instead, he orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli.

40 11. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term The blockade eventually works. The U.S. forces the pirates to sign a peace treaty which ends all tribute payments. The blockade eventually works. The U.S. forces the pirates to sign a peace treaty which ends all tribute payments. The military action is popular in the U.S., but shows the need for a U.S. navy. The military action is popular in the U.S., but shows the need for a U.S. navy. Jefferson puts aside his own personal problems with the government paying for a navy, and the country develops a stronger defense. Jefferson puts aside his own personal problems with the government paying for a navy, and the country develops a stronger defense.

41 11. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Great Britain continues its policy of impressment. Great Britain continues its policy of impressment. Impressment is when the British kidnap U.S. sailors and force them to work as British sailors. Impressment is when the British kidnap U.S. sailors and force them to work as British sailors. The impressment issue becomes a big deal with the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair in June The impressment issue becomes a big deal with the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair in June 1807.

42 11. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Jefferson deals with the impressment issue by asking for an embargo, or block of trade, against both Great Britain and France. Jefferson deals with the impressment issue by asking for an embargo, or block of trade, against both Great Britain and France. Congress passes the Embargo Act of The main victim of the law was neither Great Britain nor France—it was the U.S. merchants who could no longer trade with either country. Congress passes the Embargo Act of The main victim of the law was neither Great Britain nor France—it was the U.S. merchants who could no longer trade with either country.

43 11. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term The Embargo Act proves EXTREMELY unpopular and Jefferson’s popularity suffers as a result. The Embargo Act proves EXTREMELY unpopular and Jefferson’s popularity suffers as a result. Eventually, Congress repealed the Embargo Act and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act. Eventually, Congress repealed the Embargo Act and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act. The Non-Intercourse Act was no more successful than the Embargo Act. American merchants and shipowners suffered greatly. The Non-Intercourse Act was no more successful than the Embargo Act. American merchants and shipowners suffered greatly. Jefferson leaves office with a loss of respect. Jefferson leaves office with a loss of respect.

44 12. Jefferson after the Presidency James Madison, the author of the Constitution, a Democratic-Republican, and Jefferson’s hand-picked successor becomes the next President. James Madison, the author of the Constitution, a Democratic-Republican, and Jefferson’s hand-picked successor becomes the next President. Madison leads the country during the War of Madison leads the country during the War of 1812.

45 12. Jefferson after the Presidency Jefferson renews his friendship with his long-term friend and political rival, John Adams. Jefferson renews his friendship with his long-term friend and political rival, John Adams. Jefferson and Adams exchange tons of letters with each other. Jefferson and Adams exchange tons of letters with each other. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the same day: July 4, It was the 50 th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence which both men help write. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the same day: July 4, It was the 50 th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence which both men help write.

46 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IS JEFFERSON’S GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT AS PRESIDENT.

47 Chapter 10, Section 4

48 Vocabulary Impressment 2. Embargo 3. Unprepared 4. Capture 5. Outnumbered 6. Blockade 7. Port 8. Invade 9. Allies 1. A refusal to trade with another country 2. Friends 3. To take control of 4. A place where ships stop 5. Forcing sailors to work on another ship 6. Not read 7. To enter with force 8. Closing off an area with ships 9. When the other side has more soldiers/people than you do

49 Causes of the War Impressment Britain and France were fighting a war in Europe Britain began capturing American sailors and “impressing” them, or forcing them to work on British ships By 1807, Britain had seized more than 1,000 American ships

50 2. Embargo Act of 1807 President Jefferson convinced Congress to declare an embargo Jefferson believed the embargo would hurt Britain, but it really hurt America In 1809, Congress ended the embargo with all countries except Britain and France

51 3. America’s Desire for Canada Americans saw that Canada was not well- defended by Britain Americans saw that Canada was not well- defended by Britain Americans wanted more land and believed that people in Canada would want to join the United States Americans wanted more land and believed that people in Canada would want to join the United States

52 B. The War Hawks A group of Republican Congressmen from the South and West Wanted war against Britain Led by Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clary of Kentucky

53 C. Election of 1808 James Madison, a Democratic-Republican, won James Madison, a Democratic-Republican, won In the Spring of 1812, Madison decided to go to war against Britain In the Spring of 1812, Madison decided to go to war against Britain

54 D. The War in Canada Americans were unprepared for war The British captured Detroit and the Americans failed to capture Canada Many Native Americans helped the British because they wanted to stop Americans from taking more land

55 E. The War at Sea The U.S. Navy was young and outnumbered The U.S. Navy was young and outnumbered In November of 1812, the British blockaded the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays In November of 1812, the British blockaded the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays The blockade grew throughout the war The blockade grew throughout the war By 1813, most American ships were unable to leave their ports By 1813, most American ships were unable to leave their ports

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57 F. The War on Land Battle for Washington The British invaded Washington, D.C. in 1814 British soldiers burned the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings Before the British burned the White House, Dolley Madison saved a famous painting of George Washington

58 2. Battle at Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key: an American lawyer and prisoner of the British Francis Scott Key: an American lawyer and prisoner of the British Saw an American flag flying over Ft. McHenry after the battle Saw an American flag flying over Ft. McHenry after the battle The flag inspired Key to write “The Star-Spangled Banner” The flag inspired Key to write “The Star-Spangled Banner”

59 G. The Battle of New Orleans (1815) The most famous/important battle of the War The most famous/important battle of the War Americans were lead to victory by General Andrew Jackson Americans were lead to victory by General Andrew Jackson The battle continued even after the war ended because word did not reach the Americans for several weeks The battle continued even after the war ended because word did not reach the Americans for several weeks

60 H. The Treaty of Ghent In December, 1815, British and Americans met in Ghent, Belgium to negotiate a peace treaty Results of the war: Britain and American became better allies America gained respect from other countries

61 End

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