Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 European Underpinnings. The Tiger v The Shark In 1805, the world balance of power shook as British ships beat Napoleon's navy at the."— Presentation transcript:
The War of 1812 European Underpinnings
The Tiger v The Shark In 1805, the world balance of power shook as British ships beat Napoleon's navy at the Battle of Trafalgar establishing British Naval dominance
The Tiger v The Shark At the same time, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo- Austrian forces at Austerlitz that same year.
The Tiger v The Shark France now had unquestionable control of the European continent, and Britain, held unquestionable mastery of the seas. This threw off any Balance of Power in Europe
The Tiger v The Shark The two European powers took to fighting each other indirectly, through economic warfare.
The Tiger v The Shark Napoleon created the Continental System which, closed off all European ports to Britain to crush their economy
The Tiger v The Shark In response, Britain passed the Orders in Council in 1806. According to these regulations, US ships could not land at a European port without first stopping at a British port.
The Tiger v The Shark Napoleon retaliated with a harsh measure, demanding the seizure of any ship that landed in Europe after stopping in Britain.
The Tiger v The Shark As you could imagine, these economic measures wreaked havoc with the American economy.
Not impressed by Impressments Always in need of men, British ships would stop American ships, capture sailors (sometimes violently), and force them to serve in the British navy. This was referred to as impressment and the sailors became known as "press-gangs"
Chesapeake Incident In 1807, off the Virginia coast, the US Ship Chesapeake was approached by a British ship, which demanded to board so that it could reclaim "deserters" who were on the boat.
Chesapeake Incident The Americans refused. The British ship opened fire on the Chesapeake, killing and wounding several.
Chesapeake Incident The Chesapeake was outgunned and eventually had to surrender four sailors to the British.
Chesapeake Incident What is the origin of the document (When was it written, who wrote it)? What ship attacked the Chesapeake? Why was the Chesapeake's captain sure the none of his crew were former British sailors? Who was in charge of the American Ship? How many casualties did the Chesapeake suffer? What 4 men were taken and what did research show about their citizen ship?
Chesapeake Incident This created a huge US outcry, but Jefferson refused war, and instead opted for economic retaliation with the embargo of 1807.
Dambargo The embargo backfired, shutting down New England's trade and leaving the South and West with piles of unsold goods. By 1808, illegal trade across the US-Canada border was rampant.
Dambargo Repealed On March 1, 1809, the Embargo Act was repealed, to be replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act. This act allowed trade with everyone except Britain and France.
Dambargo Repealed Cleaning up the embargo mess was left to James Madison, Jefferson's successor as president.
Madison Steps In In the election of 1808, James Madison managed to win by publishing dispatches from his term as Jefferson's secretary of state, proving that he was tough on the British.
Madison Steps In On March 4, 1809, Madison became US President.
Using the Embargo Repealed Reading: What did either Britain or France have to do to normalize trade with the US? According to the reading, why was the embargo repealed for France and not Britain?
Taking Sides In 1810, Congress passed Macon's Bill No. 2 declaring that if either France or Britain normalized trade with the US, the US would employ the Non-Intercourse Act against the other power.
Taking Sides Napoleon took the opportunity. In August of 1810, he quickly promised that all economic terms restricting US imports into Europe would soon be lifted.
Taking Sides Madison reinstated the Non-Intercourse Acts restricting trade with Britain in November 1810. This brought the US to the brink of war with Britain.
Madison’s 1811 State of the Union What did France do after we normalized trade with them? What grievances did Madison make against England? What are the “Orders” being referenced in the speech?
The War Hawks In 1811 a new congress convened While it was made up primarily of Democratic- Republicans, a new faction emerged consisting of a powerful bloc of younger congressmen from the south and frontier west. They became known as the War Hawks.
The War Hawks Henry Clay of Kentucky became the leader of the War Hawks At age thirty-three, he was elected Speaker of the House by a War Hawk dominated Congress.
Troubles in the Frontier Worried about American encroachment in places such as Kentucky, which most Indian tribes had considered a kind of "hunting reserve" and buffer zone, was now filled with white settlers.
The Warrior and the Prophet Two Shawnee Indian leaders, Tecumseh and his brother The Prophet, felt that action needed to be taken to stop US encroachment.
The Warrior and the Prophet The two rallied a broad Indian alliance to fight the white settlers. The alliance promised to sign over no more land to the whites The various tribes of the region promised to work together for common defense.
The Warrior and the Prophet v. The Hawks Tecumseh's forces attacked the frontier settlers The War Hawks in Congress became convinced that the British were financing the Indian alliance from Canada.
This Means War!!! Already incensed over the British Orders in Council and impressment, the assumed British support of Tecumseh pushed the War Hawks to even greater heights of fervor.
This Means War!!! Congress mobilized its armies to take on Tecumseh's tribes. On November 7, 1811, General William Henry Harrison invaded and torched the village of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh's headquarters.
This Means War!!! With the Indians in the frontier nearly defeated, the War Hawks moved to attack the Indian's supply base: British Canada.
This Means War!!! The War Hawks simultaneously had their eyes on what was left of Spanish Florida. June 1812, against the wishes of the pro- trade and Federalist Northeast, Congress declared war on Britain.
Whether the United States shall continue passive under these … accumulating wrongs, or, opposing force to force in defense of their national rights, shall commit a just cause into the hands of the Almighty Disposer of Events, … is a solemn question which the Constitution wisely confides to the legislative department of the Government. In recommending it to their early deliberations I am happy in the assurance that the decision will be worthy the enlightened and patriotic councils of a virtuous, a free, and a powerful nation. —President James Madison, War Message to Congress in Washington, June 1, 1812
Background It has been written that Madison's presidency was dominated by a crisis with Great Britain, which for years had been grossly violating American shipping rights." This crisis over U.S. shipping rights actually began while George Washington was president and grew during Thomas Jefferson's term in office (1800-1808), when Madison served as Secretary of State.
Background Between 1805-07, a large number of American ships were seized and impressments of American sailors into service on British ships increased, leading Congress to pass an extreme measure, the Embargo Act of 1807. The act restricted trade with foreign nations. A state of war that began in 1803 and would continue until after Napoleon's abdication in 1814 resulted in a loss of commerce that devastated the American economy while doing little to change the policies of France and Britain.
Background In 1810 Napoleon's announced that France would no longer seize American ships, which convinced President Madison to allow trade with France. The announcement had conditions attached, and France continued to interfere with American shipping. In the end, however, the U.S. declared war only on Great Britain.
Background On June 1, 1812, President Madison sent a letter—later dubbed his war message—to both houses of Congress. He listed a series of transgressions Great Britain had committed against the U.S., and explained his decision not to recommend war with France at that time.
Madison’s War Message Why does Madison feel that the attack on Canada is justified? Using Madison’s War Message, list the grievances that the US had against Britain. How did Britain attempt to avoid war? Why didn’t the US accept it?